ACRONYMS.TXT --- ISO-8859-1 Last modified 2015-11-30
1BASE-5     1MHz StarLAN
1G          1st Generation ( analog system )
2B1Q        2-Binary 1-Quaternary ( modulation scheme )
2D          2(two)-Dimensional
2G          2nd Generation ( digital system )
2W          2-Wire
3D          3(three)-Dimensional
3G          3rd Generation ( high-speed network system )
3GPP        3rd Generation Partnership Project
3M          Minnesota Mining & Manufacturing ( Co. )
3OIIP       3rd(third)-Order Input-Intercept Point
3OP         3rd(third)-Order Product ( level )
6DOF        6 Degree Of Freedom ( boundary/finite-element modeling )
8PSK        8-level Phase-Shift Keying
8-VSB       8-level Vestigial SideBand
10BASE-T    10MHz Twisted Pair ( 4-Wire UTP )
10BASE-5    10MHz 'Thick Ethernet' ( thick coaxial cable )
10BASE-2    10MHz 'Thin Ethernet' ( thin coaxial cable, 'Cheapernet' )
16QAM       16-level Quadrature Amplitude Modulation
64-CAP      64-point Carrierless Amplitude/Phase ( modulation )
64QAM       64-symbol Quadrature Amplitude Modulation
100BASE-FX  100MHz Fiber Optic
100BASE-T4  100MHz Twisted Pair ( 4-pair UTP CAT-3 )
100BASE-TX  100MHz Twisted Pair ( 2-pair UTP CAT-5, category five twisted-pair copper )

a           atto ( 10^-18 )
A           Ampere ( electrical current )
A2LA        American Association for Laboratory Accreditation
AA          Active Addressing ( LCD )
AAGR        Average Annual Growth Rate
AAIC        Active Addressing Integrated Circuit
AAL         ATM-Adaption Layer
AAP         Authorized Assembler Program ( IBM )
ABB         Asea Brown Boveri ( )
ABC         ADPCM Baseband Controller ( DECT )
ABF         Adaptive Beam-Forming ( filter )
ABI         Application Binary Interface
ABIL        Advanced Bus-Interface Logic
ABK         Anzeige-BedienKomponente ( SPS )
ABLE        Adaptive Batterie-Life Extender
ABM         Advanced Batterie Management
ABM         Asynchronous Balance Mode
ABM         ATM-Buffer Manager
ABR         Available Bit Rate ( ATM )
ABS         Analog Behavorial Model
ABS         Anti-lock Braking System
ABS         Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene ( Akrylnitril, Butadien, Styrol )
ABT         Advanced BiCMOS Technology
AC          Advanced CMOS ( circuit )
AC          Alternating Current
ACATS       Advisory Committee on Advanced Television Service ( standard )
ACB         Association of Competent Bodies ( EMC directive )
ACC         American Control Conference
ACD         Advanced Communication Devices ( Fremont CA )
AC/DC       Alternating Current - Direct Current
ACE         Absolute Contacting Encoder
ACE         Advanced Communication Engine
ACE         Analog Circuit Engine
ACE         Asynchronous Communication Element
ACE         ATM Crossbar Element
ACELP       Adaptive Code-Excited Linear Prediction
ACESA       Australian Commonwealth Engineering Standards Association
ACET        Advisory Commitee on Electronics and Telecommunication
ACF         Anisotropic Conductive Film
ACF         Auto-Correlation Function
ACI         Automatic Calibration Interface ( ASAM )
ACI         Automatic Channel Installation ( TV )
ACIA        Asynchronous Communications Interface Adapter
ACK         Acknowledge ( ASCII control code )
ACL         Advanced CMOS Logic
ACL         Application Configuration Language
ACM         Address-Code Multiplex
ACM         Association for Computing Machinery
ACME        A Company Making Everything [ humorously explained, a brand sold from Sears Roebuck catalogs ]
ACM/SIGDA   Association for Computing Machinery/Special Interest Group on Design Automation
ACOS        Advisory Committee on Safety
ACP         Adjacent Channel Power
ACPC        Apple Communications Protocol Card [ a parallel interface card that lets an Apple II-family computer communicate and exchange files with other Apple II computers or with most IBM host computers ]
ACPI        Advanced Configuration and Power Interface
ACPR        Adjacent-Channel Power-Ratio ( measurement )
ACR         Advanced Capabilities Radar
ACR         Allowed Cell Rate ( ATM )
ACR         Attenuation to Crosstalk Ratio
ACSE        Association Control Service Element
AD          Analog Devices
A/D         Analog to Digital
ADA         Autonomous Data Acquisition
ADB         Apple Desktop Bus
ADC         American Digital Cellular ( Telephony )
ADC         Analog-to-Digital Converter
ADE         Audible Doppler Enhancer
ADF         Automatic Direction Finder
ADFC        Allgemeiner Deutscher Fahrrad-Club
ADG         Automatic Datasheet Generation
ADLC        Asynchronous Data Link Control
ADM         Add-Drop Multiplexer
ADM         Application Development Module
ADPCM       Adaptive Differential Pulse-Code Modulation
ADR         ASTRA Digital Radio
ADS         Advanced Design System ( Agilent EEsof Westlake Village CA, former HP EEsof )
ADSI        Analog Display Service Interface
ADSL        Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line
ADSL        Asynchronous Digital Subscriber Line ( modem )
ADT         Abstract Data Type
ADTA        Analog Design and Test Automation
ADU         Analog-Digital-Umsetzer ( ADC )
AE          Application Engineer
AEA         American Electronic Association ( Washington DC )
AEA         American Engineering Association ( Fort Worth TX )
AEC         Acoustic Echo Cancellation
AEEC        Airlines Electronic Engineering Committee
AEG         Allgemeine Electricitäts-Gesellschaft ( Berlin, Germany )
AES         Advanced Encryption Standard
AES         Automatic Electronic Shutter
AESOP       Application Engineering Support through Online Productivity ( BBS )
AF          Audio Frequency
AFAIK       As Far As I Know ( net slang )
AFC         Alkaline Fuel Cell
AFC         Automatic Frequency Control
AFE         Analog Front End
AFEC        Analog Front End Circuit
AFI         Advanced Fulfillment Initiative ( IBM )
AFIC        Analog Front end Integrated Circuit
AFLASH      Audio-grade FLASH ( memory )
AFM         Atomic Force Microscope
Ag          Argentum [ Silber ]
AGC         Automatic Gain Control
AGLV        ArbeitsGemeinschaft Lampen-Verwertung
AGND        Analog Ground
AGP         Accelerated Graphics Port
AGV         Automatic Guided Vehicle
AHB         Advanced High-performance Bus
AHC         Advanced High-speed CMOS
AHDL        Altera Hardware Description Language
AHDL        Analog Hardware-Description Language
AI          Artificial Intelligence
AIC         Analog In-Circuit ( test )
AIC         Analog Interface Circuit
AIDA        Aerosols, Interactions and Dynamics in the Atmosphere ( Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe Germany )
AILS        Automatic Input Level Setting
AIM         Attitude and Information Management ( subsystem, Pathfinder )
AIM         Avalanche Induced Migration
AIME        Air Interface Monitor Emulation ( software )
AIN         Advanced Intelligent Network
AIS         Alarm-Indication Signal ( ATM )
AIS         Attribute Information Structure
AIT         Advanced Intelligent Tape ( Sony )
AJ          Anti-Jamming
AK          Alaska
AKA         Also Known As
AKD         Any Key Down
AKF         AutoKorrelationsFunktion
AKM         Asahi Kasei Microsystems
Al          Aluminium
AL          Alabama
AL          América Latina
AL          Arbitrated Loop
ALAP        Appletalk Link Access Protocol [ the lowest-level protocol in the AppleTalk architecture, managing node-to-node delivery of frames on a single AppleTalk network ]
ALARA       As Low As Reasonably Achievable ( radiation risk )
ALB         Advanced Low-voltage BiCMOS
ALC         Advanced Low-voltage CMOS
ALE         Address Latch Enable ( µC signal )
ALF         Advanced Library Format
AlGaN       Aluminum Gallium Nitride
ALGOL       ALGOrithmic Language
ALI         Acer Laboratories Incorporated ( San Jose CA )
ALI         Annual Limit on Intake [ the derived limit for the amount of radioactive material taken into the body of an adult by inhalation or ingestion in a year ]
ALIS        Analog Line Interface Solution
ALM         ATM-Layer Manager
ALN         Adaptive-Logic Network
AlN         Aluminum Nitride ( ceramic )
ALOHA       Aboriginal Lands Of Hawaiian Ancestry ( movement )
ALS         Advanced Light Source
ALS         Advanced Low-power Schottky ( logic )
ALU         Arithmetic Logic Unit
ALVC        Advanced Low-Voltage CMOS
ALVCH       Advanced Low-Voltage CMOS with bus-Hold
AM          Active Matrix ( liquid-crystal display )
AM          Amplitude Modulation
AM          Ante Meridiem [ before noon ]
AM0         Air Mass 0 ( zero )
AMB         Active Metal Brazing
AMBA        Advanced Microcontroller Bus Architecture ( ARM )
AMBE        Advanced Multi-Band Excitation ( speech-compression technique )
AMC         Associative Memory Controller
AMC         Australian Maritime College
AMCAM       Addressing Mapping Content Addressable Memory
AMCC        Applied Micro Circuits Corporation ( San Diego CA )
AMD         Advanced Micro Devices ( Inc. Sunnyvale CA )
AMECA       Automotive Manufacturers Equipment Compliance Agency
AMEL        Active-Matrix ElectroLuminsescent ( display )
AMG         Alternating Metal Ground ( architecture, Fairchild )
AMI         Alternate Mark Inversion
AMI         American Megatrends Incorporated
AMI         American Microsystems Incorporated ( Pocatello ID )
AMLCD       Active-Matrix Liquid Crystal Display
AMMPEC      Advanced Materials and Manufacturing Processes for Economic Competitiveness ( organization New Mexico )
AMN         Artifical Mains Network
AMP         Attached Media Processor
AMPP        Altera's Megafunction Partners Program
AMPS        Advanced Mobile Phone Service
AMPS        Automatic Minimization of Power through Sizing ( tool )
AMPSS       Astec Modular Power Supply System
AMR         Audio/Modem Riser ( card specification, Intel )
A/MS        Analog/Mixed Signal ( design )
AMS         Alarm Management System
AMS         Analog-Mixed-Signal ( design )
AMTRI       Advanced Manufacturing Technology Research Institute
ANI         Anwendungszentrum Neuro-Informatik ( e.V. Schwerin Germany )
AMU         Address Management Unit [ on the Macintosh II, handles only 24-to-32-bit address translation and is not a true memory management unit ]
ANI         Automatic Number Identification
ANOVA       Analysis Of Variance
ANRS        Automatic Noise Reduction System
ANS         Adaptive Noise Suppression
ANSI        American National Standards Institute
AOI         Automated Optical Inspection
AOQ         Average Outgoing Quality
AOTF        Acousto-Optic Tunable Filter ( dynamic spectral filter )
APB         Advanced PCI Bridge
APB         Advanced Peripheral Bus
APC         Advanced Power Control
APCO        Association of Public safety Communication Officials
APD         Avalanche PhotoDiode
APDA        Apple Programmers and Developers Association
APEC        Applied Power Electronics Conference
API         Application Programming Interface
APIC        Advanced Peripheral Interrupt Controller
APL         A Programming language
APLI        Applications Programming Language Interface
APM         Advanced Power Management
APMP        Associação para a Promoção do Multimédia em Portugal
APS         Active Pixel image Sensor
APS         Advanced Planning and Scheduling
APS         Associative Processor System
APSK        Audio Phase Shift Keying
APT         Advanced Power Technology ( Bend OR )
APU         Associative Processing Unit
AQL         Acceptable Quality Level
AQL         Average Quality Level
Ar          Argon
AR          Arkansas
ARAM        Audio-grade dRAM
ARAS        Anti-Reflective Anti-Static ( display )
ARB         ARBitrary-waveform generator
ARCNET      Attached Resource Computer local area NETwork
ARCOFI      Audio Ringing COdec FIlter
ArF         Argon Fluoride ( excimer laser for lithography )
ARIB        Association of Radio Industries and Business
ARINC       Aeronautical Radio INC ( airline consortium )
ARL         Address Resolution Logic
ARM         Advanced RISC Machines ( Ltd. Los Gatos CA; Cambridge UK )
ARN         Atmospheric Radio Noise
ARO         After Receipt of Order
ARP         Address Resolution Protocol ( ATM )
ARPA        Advanced Research Projects Agency ( of the U.S. Department of Defense )
ARPANET     [ A wide area network that links government, academic, and industrial installations around the world ]
ARPES       Angle-Resolved PhotoEmission Spectroscopy
ARPU        Average Revenue Per User ( mobile phone )
ARQ         Automatic Repeat reQuest
ARRL        American Radio Relay League
ARS         Agricultural Research Service
ARU         Automatic Routing Unit
As          Arsen
AS          AblaufSprache ( SPS )
AS          Advanced Schottky ( logic )
ASA         Acrylnitril-Styrol-Acrylester ( Copolymer )
ASA         American Standards Association
ASAM        Association for Standardisation of Automation and Measurement systems
ASAP        As Soon As Possible
ASCEND      Altera/Synplicity Cooperative ENgineering Development
ASCI        Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative
ASCII       American Standard Code for Information Interchange
ASD         Application Specific Discrete
ASE         Amplified Spontaneous Emission
ASE         Association Suisse des Electriciens
ASHRAE      American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air conditioning Engineers
ASI         Actuator Sensor Interface
ASIA        Active Signal Integrity Architecture
ASIC        Application-Specific Integrated Circuit
ASIP        Application-Specific Intstruction-set Processor
ASL         Arithmetic Shift Left ( assembler mnemonic )
ASK         Amplitude Shift Keying
ASM         Algorithmic State Machine
ASM         ASynchronMaschine
ASME        American Society of Mechanical Engineers
ASMW        Amt für Standardisierung, Messwesen und Warenprüfung
ASP         Addressable Scan Port ( SN74ABT8996 )
ASP         Analog Signal Processor
ASP         Application Service Provider
ASPI        Advanced SCSI Programming Interface
ASR         Arithmetic Shift Right ( assembler mnemonic )
ASR         Automatic Speech Recognition
ASRAM       Asynchronous SRAM
ASRS        Aviation Safety Reporting System
ASSET       Advanced Support System for Emulation and Test
ASSP        Application-Specific Signal Processor
ASSP        Application-Specific Standard Product
ASTA        Association of Short-circuit Testing Authorities
ASTEC       Advanced Solar Turbo-Electric Conversion
ASTM        American Society for Testing and Materials
ASTRIC      Application Specific Transmit and Receive Integrated Circuit
ASVD        Analog Simultaneous Voice and Data ( standard V.61 )
ATA         AT-bus Attachment [ mobile version of IDE ]
ATAPI       AT Attachment Packet Interface [ IDE standard ]
ATC         Address Translation Controller ( ATM )
ATCS        Advanced Time Channel Selection
ATDA        Agena Target Docking Adapter
ATDNet      Advanced Technology Demonstration Network ( OC-48 2.4 Gbps )
ATE         Automatic Test Equipment
ATG         Automatic Test Generation
ATIS        Air-Travel Information System
ATM         Adobe Type Manager
ATM         Asynchronous Transfer Mode
ATML        ATM Limited ( Santa Clara CA )
ATN         Attention
ATP         Advanced Technology Program
ATP         Appletalk Transaction Protocol [ An AppleTalk protocol that's a Datagram Delivery Protocol (DDP) client ]
ATP         Available To Promise
ATPG        Automatic Test-Pattern Generation
ATPG        Automatic Test Program Generator
A/T QRE     Assembly/Test Quality and Reliability Engineering
ATS         Applications Technology Satellite
ATS         Audio Test System
ATS         Automatic Tuning amd Sort ( TV )
ATSC        Advanced Television Systems Committee
ATSDR       Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
ATT         Avalanche Transit Time ( diode )
ATU-R       ADSL Termination Unit Residential part
ATV         Advanced TeleVision [ high-definition television ]
ATVG        Automatic Test Vector Generation
Au          Aurum [ Gold ]
AUI         Animation User Interface
AUI         Access Unit Interface
AUI         Attachment Unit Interface ( IEEE802.3 )
AUI         Auxiliary Unit Interface
AUMA        Austellungs- Und MesseAuschuß ( der deutschen Wirtschaft e.V. )
AVC         Automatic Volume Control
AVG         Audio, Video, and Graphics ( decoder )
AVI         Advanced Vehicle Identification
AVI         Analog VHDL International ( standards group )
AVIP        Audio-Visual Intellectual Property [ technology standard for networking consumer electronics and Internet appliances ]
AVL         Approved Vendor List
AVL         Automatic Vehicle Locator
AWE         Asymptotic Waveform Evaluation
AWG         American Wire Gauge
AWG         Arbitrary Waveform Generator
AWL         AnWeisungsListe ( SPS )
AWT         Abstract Windowing Toolkit ( Java )
AZ          Arizona

B           Bor
B8ZS        Binary 8(eight) Zero Suppression
Ba          Barium
BABT        British Approvals Board for Telecommunications
BAHAMA      Broadband-Adaptive-Homing-ATM Architecture
BALUN       BALanced-to-UNbalanced
BAM         Block Allocation Map
BAPCO       Business Applications Performance COrporation ( Santa Clara CA )
BAPT        BundesAmt für Post und Telekommunikation
BAS         Bachelor of Applied Science
BASDA       British Accounting Software Developers Association
BASEC       British Approvals Service for Electric Cables
BASEEFA     British Approvals Service for Electrical Equipment in Flammable Atmospheres
BASIC       Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code
BAW         Bulk Acoustic Wave ( device )
BBAN        Basic Bank Account Number
BBC         British Broadcasting Corporation ( )
BBC         Brown Boveri & Company ( Baden Switzerland, now ABB )
BBD         Block-Based Design
BBD         Bucket Brigade Device
BBM         Break Before Make
BBS         Bulletin Board Service
BBT         Bit-Block Transfer
BBU         Bob Bailey Unit [ a custom gate-array chip on the Macintosh SE that handles RAM, video, sound, etc. ]
BC          Behavorial Compiler
BCC         Block Check Character
BCAST       Buried Charge Accumulator and Sensing Transistor ( array )
BCCD        Bulk Charge Coupled Device
BCD         Binary-Coded Decimal
BCI         BroadCast Interference
BCJR        Bahl, Cocke, Jelink, and Rajiv ( algorithm )
BCM         BroadCast Manager ( LANE )
BCMD        Bulk Charge Modulated Device
BCS         Board Control System
BCT         BiCMOS Technology
BCTM        Bipolar/BiCMOS Circuits and Technology Meeting
BDD         Binary Decision Diagram
BDI         Bundesverband der Deutschen Industrie
BDLC        Byte-Data-Link Communication
BDM         Background Debug Mode
BDS         Battery Disconnect Switch
Be          Beryllium
BEAB        British Electrotechnical Approvals Board
BEE         Bachelor of Electric Engineering
BEF         Brightness Enhancement Filter ( LCD )
BEI         Back-scattered Electron Imaging
BEL         BELl ( ASCII control code )
BEM         Boundary Element Method
BeO         Beryllium Oxide ( ceramic )
BEP         BauEinheitenPrinzip
BER         Bit-Error Rate
BERT        Bit-Error-Rate Test
BES         BauEinheitenSystem
BES         Business Execution System
BEST        Berkeley Embedded Systems Team ( BSDI )
BFD         Binary File Descriptor
BFM         Bus Functional Model ( emulator )
BFO         Beat-Frequency Oscillator
BFSK        Binary Frequency Shift Keying
BFSL        Best-Fit Straight Line ( error measurement )
BGA         Ball Grid Array
BGI         Borland Graphics Interface
BGO         BackGround Operation
BH          Bus Hold
BHT         Branch History Table
Bi          Bismut [ Wismut ]
BiASIC      Bipolar ASIC
BIC         Bank Identifier Code
BiCMOS      Bipolar CMOS
BILBO       Built-In Logic-Block Observer
BION        Believe It Or Not
BIOS        Basic Input/Output System
BIP         Bit-Interleaved Parity
BIPS        Billion Instructions Per Second
BIST        Built-In Self-Test
BISYNC      Binary Synchronous Communication
BIT         Binary digIT
BIT         Built In Testability
BITE        Built-In Test Equipment
BIU         Bus Interface Unit
BJT         Bipolar Junction Transistor
BKP         BauKastenPrinzip
BLAS        Basic Linear-Algebra Subprogram
BLAST       Bell Labs lAyered Space-Time ( wireless technique )
BLDA        Bell Labs Design Automation ( group )
BLER        BLock-Error Rate
BLIP        Background-Limited Infrared Photodetector
BLOB        Binary Large OBject
BLP         Bottom Leaded Plastic package
BLS         Bureau of Labor Statistics
BLT         BLock Transfer
BLT         Bondline Thickness
BM          Black Matrix
BMA         BundesMinisterium für Arbeit und soziale Ordnung
BMBF        BundesMinisterium für Bildung und Forschung
BMC         Burst Mode Controller
BMDO        Ballistic Missile Defence Organisation
BML         Burst-Mode Logic ( DECT )
BMPT        BundesMinisterium für Post und Telekommunikation
BMSR        BetriebsMess-, Steuerungs- und Regelungstechnik
BMU         Bit Manipulation Unit
BNC         Bayonet Navy Connector
BNC         Bayonet Neill Concelman ( connector )
BNC         Bayonet Nut Connector
BNCT        Boron Neutron Capture Therapy
BOB         BreakOut Box
BOM         Bill Of Materials
BOPS        Billion Operations Per Second
BORSHT      Battery, Overvoltage protection, Ringing, Supervision, Hybrid, Testing
BOS         Battery Operating System
BOSFET      Bidirectional MOSFET
BPD         Buried PhotoDiode
BPI         Bits Per Inch
BPP         Bits Per Pixel
bps         bits per second
BPSK        Binary Phase-Shift Keying
BPU         Boundary-Processing Unit
BPV         Backward Propagation of Variance
Bq          Becquerel [ Radioaktivität, 1 Bq = 1 / s ]
BR          Backward Reporting ( ATM )
BR          Billing Rate
BRAM        Burst RAM
BRAN        Broadband Radio Access Network
BRD         BundesRepublik Deutschland
BRG         Baud Rate Generator
BRI         Basic Rate Interface ( ISDN )
BRT         Behavioral ReTiming
BRT         Bias-Resistor Transistor
BS          Back Space ( ASCII control code )
BSC         Bachelor of SCience
BSC         Binary Synchronous Communication [ a type of protocol developed by IBM that uses synchronization of characters to control the transfer of data over communication lines. Also referred to as bi-sync communication ]
BSC         Boundary-Scan Cell ( JTAG )
BSD         Berkeley Software Distribution [ a version of the UNIX operating system developed at the University of California at Berkeley ]
BSDI        Berkeley Software Design Inc. ( Colorado Springs CO )
BSDL        Boundary Scan Description Language
BSI         British Standards Institute
BSI         Bundesamt für Sicherheit in der Informationstechnik
BSR         Boundary-Scan Register ( JTAG )
BSRAM       Bank-Switchable Random Access Memory
BST         Barium-Strontium-Titanate
BST         Boundary-Scan Test
BSY         Busy
BT          British Telecommunications ( plc )
BTA         Bus Termination Array
BTB         Branch Target Buffer
BTDL        Bus Transaction Description Language
BTF         Byte Times per Frame
BTI         Batterie Technologies Inc. ( Ontario, Canada )
BTL         Backplane Transceiver Logic
BTL         Bridge-Tied Load ( amplifier )
BTL/FB      Backplane Transceiver Logic/FutureBus
BTO         Built To Order
BTS         Base Transceiver Station
BTU         British Thermal Unit
BTW         By The Way ( net slang )
BUND        Bund für Umwelt und Naturschutz Deutschland ( e.V. Bonn Germany )
BUS         Broadcast and Unknown Server ( LANE )
BUT         Board Under Test
BV          Bureau Veritaas
BVA         British radio Valve manufacturers' Association
BVBS        BundesVereinigung der BauSoftwarehäuser ( Germany )
BVIT        BundesVerband InformationsTechnologien ( e.V. Germany )
BW          BandWidth
BWA         Broadband Wireless Access
BWO         Backward-Wave Oscillator
BZT         Bundesamt für Zulassung in der Telekommunikation

c           centi ( 10^-2 )
C           Carbon [ Kohlenstoff ]
C           Coulomb ( electrical charge )
C/D         Control/Data
C/N         Carrier to Noise ( ratio )
Ca          Calcium [ Kalzium ]
CA          California
CA          CelluloseAcetat
CA          Certificate Authority
CA³D        Coherent-Adaptive-Antenna-Array Diversity
CAA         Civil Aviation Authority ( UK )
CAAA        Channel-Aggregation Access Arrangement
CAAA        Clean Air Act Amendments
CAAG        Compound Average Annual Growth
CAB         CelluloseAcetoButyrat
CAC         Compact Anechoic Chamber ( EMC )
CACSE       Computer-Aided Control System Engineering
CAD         Computer Aided Design
CAE         Computer Aided Engineering
CAGR        Compound Annual Growth Rate
CAI         Computer-Aided Instruction [ the use of a computer to help teach people through interaction with educational software ]
CAID        Computer Aided Instrument Design
CAIRN       Collaborative Advanced Interagency Research Network
CAIS        Catalyst Adsorptive Insulator Semiconductor
CAIST       Center for Advanced Science and Technology ( Troy NY )
CAL         CAN Application Layer
CAL         Clocked Adiabatic Logic
CAL         Common Application Language
CAL         Controlled Axial Lifetime ( diode )
CALEA       Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act
CALL        Control Application Link Layer
CALTECH     CALifornia institute of TECHnology ( Pasadena CA )
CAM         Computer-Aided Manufacturing
CAM         Content Addressable Memory
CAMAC       Computer-Aided Measurement and Control
CAN         CANcel ( ASCII control code )
CAN         Controller Area Network
CAN OPUS    CAN OPen User System ( protocol )
CAP         Carrierless Amplitude and Phase ( modulation )
CAP/QAM     Carrierless Amplitude  Phase modulation/Quadrature Amplitude Modulation
CAP         CTM Access Profile ( DECT )
CAPD        Computer Automated Performance Data
CAPE        Copmputer Aided Production Engineering
CAPI        Common Application Programming Interface
CAPI        Common-ISDN Application Programming Interface
CAPRI       Code Address Private Radio Intercom
CAPS        Computer Aided Polymer Selection
CARES       Customer Automated REplenishment System
CART        Classification And Regression Tree ( neural network )
CAS         Column Address Strobe
CAS         CPE Alerting Signal
CASE        Computer-Aided Software Engineering
CAT         Computer-Aided Test
CAT         Computerized Axial Tomography ( medical diagnostics )
CATV        CAble TeleVision
CATV        Community Antenna TeleVision
CAV         Constant Angular Velocity
CAVE        Computer Assisted Virtual Environment
CAVERN      CAVE Research Network
CAW         Control of Asbestos at Work
CB          Certification Board
CB          Citiziens Band
CB          Competent Body ( EMC directive )
CB          Complementary-Bipolar ( process )
CBA         Cell-Based Array
CBB         Configurable Building Block ( FPGA )
CBC         Complementary-Bipolar CMOS ( process )
CBC         Cypher Block Chaining
CBE         Circuit Breakers for Equipment
CBEMA       Computer and Business Equipment Manufacturers Association
CBEMA/ITIC  Computer Business Equipment Manufacturers Association/Information Technology Industry Council
CBGA        Ceramic Ball Grid Array
CBGA        Chip-scale Ball Grid Array
CBI         Circuit Board Indicator
CBIC        Cell-Based Integrated Circuit
CBIC        Complementary Bipolar Integrated Circuit
CBIRS       Content-Based Image Retrieval System
CBL         Cadence Berkeley Labs
CBR         Constant Bit Rate ( ATM )
CBS         Cycle-Based Simulation
CBT         Computer-Based Training
CBT         CrossBar Technology ( switch )
CBU         Costumization Business Unit
CC          Call Center
CC          Client Company
CC          Closed Captitioning ( TV )
CC          Call Center
CCA         Clear Channel Assessment ( IEEE-802.11 )
CCC         Component Communication and Coordination ( ASAM )
CCC         Copyright Clearance Center ( Inc. Danvers MA )
CCD         Charge-Coupled Device
CCE         Configurable Combinatorial Element ( FPGA )
CCF         Cross-Correlation Function
CCFL        Cold Cathode Fluorescent Lighting/Lamp
CCFT        Cold Cathode Fluorescent Tube
CCIC        Commitee on Computing, Information, and Communications
CCIF        Comité Consultatif International Fonique (téléphonique)
CCIR        Comité Consultatif International des Radiocommunications
CCIT        Comité Consultatif International Télégraphique
CCITT       Comité Consultatif International Téléphonique et Télégraphique
CCITT       Consultative Committee on International Telephone and Telegraph
CCCN        Customs Harmonised Commodity Code
CCM         Configurable Controller Methodology
CCM         Continuous Conduction Mode ( SMPS )
CCN         Center for Civic Networking
CCO         Cisco Connection Online ( Cisco Systems, San Jose CA )
CCO         Current-Controlled Oscillator
CCP         Consumer Controller Processor ( Zilog )
CCPIT       China Council for the Promotion of International Trade
CCR         Current Cell Rate ( ATM )
CCS         Common Channel Signalling
CCS         Computerized Charging System
CCS         Continuous Commercial Service
CCSL        Compatible Current Sinking Logic
CCSN        Common Channel Signalling Network
CCSTN       Color Codes Super Twisted Nematic ( LCD )
CCTV        Closed-Circuit TeleVision
CC/VL       Constant Current - Voltage Limited ( power supply )
CCW         CounterClockWise
cd          candela
Cd          Cadmium
CD          Compact Disk
CDA         Controller Desktop Advisor
CDAM        Cordless Digital Answering Machine
CDC         Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
CDC         Clock Distribution Circuit
CDD         polyChlorinated Dibenzo-para-Dioxin
CDDI        Copper-based Distributed Data Interface ( FDDI over STP )
CDDM        Clock Driven Design Methodology
CDE         Common Desktop Environment
CDF         Cumulative Distribution Function
CDF         polyChlorinated DibenzoFuran
CDFG        Control-Data Flow-Graph ( format )
CDI         Capacitive Discharge Ignition
CDI         Collector Diffusion Isolation ( transistor )
CD-I        Compact Disc Interactive
CDIP        Ceramic Dual In-line Package
CDL         Capacitance-Driven Layout
CDL         Copper Data Link
CDL         Core-Diode Logic
CDLC        Connected Device Limited Configuration ( mobile phone )
CDM         Charged Device Model ( ESD )
CDM         Code Division Multiplex
cd/m²       candelas per square meter
CDMA        Code-Division Multiple-Access
CDPD        Cellular Digital Packet Data
CDR         Clock and Data Recovery
CDR         Computer Disaster Recovery
CD-R        CD Recordable
CDRH        Center for Devices and Radiological Health
CD-ROM      Compact Disk-Read Only Memory
CD-RW       Compact Disc ReWritable
CDS         Correlated Double Sampling
CDSL        Consumer Digital Subscriber Line ( Rockwell )
cDSP        customizable DSP
CDT         Cambridge Display Technology ( Inc. Cambridge England )
CDVT        Cell Delay Variation Tolerance ( ATM )
CDW         Computer Discount Warehouse
Ce          Cerium [ Zer ]
CE          Chip Enable
CE          Clear Entry ( key )
CE          Conformité Européene / Certified Europe
CE          Contract Engineer
CEA         Components for Evaluation and Analysis ( ASAM )
CEBEC       Comité Electrotechnique Belge
CECC        CENELEC Electronic Components Committee
CEG         Consumer Electronics Group ( EIA )
CEI         Cabin Equipment Interface
CEL         California Eastern Laboratories ( Santa Clara )
CELP        Card Edge Low Profile
CELP        Code Excited Linear Prediction
CEM         Contract Electronics Manufacturer
CEM         Conventional Electron Microscope
CEMA        Consumer Electronics Manufacturers Association
CEN         Comité Européen de Normalisation
CENELEC     Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique
CEO         Chief Executive Officer
CerDIP      Ceramic Dual In-Line Package
CERMET      CERamic METal ( compound used with trim pots )
CES         Consumer Electronics Show ( Las Vegas )
CETI        Communication with Extra-Terrestrial Intelligences
CETRA       China External TRAde development center ( Taiwan )
CF          CompactFlash ( card )
CFA         CompactFlash Association
CFA         Current Feedback Amplifier
CFAR        Constant False-Alarm Rate ( RADAR )
CFB         Complex Functional Block ( ASSP )
CFC         ChloroFluoroCarbon
CFC         Continuous Function Chart
CFC         Current-to-Frequency Converter
CFD         Computational Fluid Dynamics
CFE         ConFiguration Enable ( GPIB )
CFI         Common Flash memory Interface
CFL         Cold Cathode Fluorescent Lighting
CFM         Cubic Feet per Minute
CFO         Chief Financial Officer
CFR         Code of Federal Regulations
CFR         Cooperative Fuel Research ( Motor )
CFS         Color Field Sequential ( technique in LCoS displays )
CG          Centre of Gravity
CG          Character Generator
CGA         Colour Graphics Adapter
CGC         Clock Generator Circuit
CGI         Common Gateway Interface
CGK         Computer Gesellschaft Konstanz ( mbH Konstanz Germany )
CGPM        Conférence Générale des Poids et Mesures
cgs         centimeter-gramm-second ( units system )
CGS         Clock Generation and Support
CH          Contract House
CHAP        Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol
CHDS        Chip Hierarchical Design System
CHE         Channel-Hot-Electron ( injection )
CHeX        Confined Helium eXperiment ( Stanford University, Stanford CA )
CHI         Concentration Highway Interface
ChLCD       Cholesteric Liquid Crystal Display
CHMSL       Center High-Mounted Stop Lamp
CHRP        Common Hardware Reference Platform ( PowerPC )
CiA         CAN in Automation ( e.V. Erlangen Germany )
CIC         Communications Intelligence Corporation ( Redwood Shores CA )
CICC        Custom Integrated Circuits Conference
CID         Caller ID
CID         Charge-Injection Device
CID         Computer Integrated Design
CIDCW       Calling Identity Delivery on Call Waiting
CIE         Computer-Integrated Engineering
CIEE        China International Electronics Exhibition
CIF         CalTech Intermediate Format
CIF         Cell-In-Frame ( ATM )
CIF         Common Interface Format ( 352 by 288 pixels )
CII         Communications Instruments Incorporated ( Fairview NC )
CILAP       Consortium for Intelligent Large-Area Processing
CIM         Computer Integrated Manufacturing
CIMID       Chip In Molded Interconnection Device
CIMS        Commercial Informations Management System
CIMS        Component Information Management System
CIO         Chief Information Officer
CIPSU       Computer Industry Project of Stanford University
CIS         Card Information Structure ( PCMCIA )
CIS         Contact Image Sensor
CIS         Copper-Indium di-Selenide ( technology )
CIS         Custom Integrated Services
CISC        Complex Instruction Set Computer
CISPR       Comité International Spécial de Perturbations Radioélectriques
CITB        Construction Industry Training Board
CITEL       Comisión Interamericana de Telecomunicaciones
CITI        Center for Information Technology Integration ( University of Michigan in Ann Arbor )
CITS        Centro Internacional de Tecnología de Software ( Curitiba Brazil )
CJC         Cold Junction Compensation
CLA         Control Law Accelerator
CLAW        Control of Lead At Work
CLB         Configurable Logic Block ( FPGA )
CLC         Configurable Logic Cell ( FPGA )
CLCC        Ceramic Leadless Chip Carrier
CLEC        Competitive Local-Exchange Carrier
CLIW        Configurable Long Instruction Word
CLIX        Competitive Local Inter-eXchange ( operator )
CLK         Clock
CLL         Capacitor Long Life ( concept )
CLP         Cell Loss Priority ( ATM )
CLUT        Color Look-Up Table
CLV         Constant Linear Velocity
CM          Cable Modem
CMA         Ceramic Multilayer Actuators
CMC         Common Mezzanine Card
CMC         Corporate Management Committee ( IBM )
CMD         Charge-Modulation Device
CMD         Command
CMD         Cross-Modulation Distortion
CMF         Current-Mode Feedback
CMG         Compter Marketing Group ( Avnet )
CMI         Code Mark Inversion
CMIC        Coherent-Multistage-Interference Cancellation
CMIP        Common Management Information Protocol ( network )
CML         Current-Mode Logic
CMM         Capability Maturity Model
CMOS        Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor
CMP         Chemical Mechanical Polishing
CMR         Common-Mode Rejection
CMRR        Common-Mode Rejection Ratio
CMS         Corporate Management System ( MentorGraphics )
CMTS        Cable Modem Termination System
CMVC        Configuration Management and Version Control ( tool )
CMV         Common-Mode Voltage
CMVR        Common-Mode Voltage Range
CMY         Cyan, Magenta, Yellow ( color scheme )
CMYK        Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, blacK ( color scheme )
CNAM        Caling Name delivery
CNC         Computerized Numerical Control
CND         Calling Number Delivery
CNDA        Corporate Non-Disclosure Agreement
CNE         Certified Network Engineer
CNR         Carrier-to-Noise Ratio
CNR         Communication Networking Riser ( card specification, Intel )
Co          Cobalt
CO          Central Office
CO          Colorado
CO          Crystal-controlled Oscillator
COA         Certificate Of Authenticity
COAST       Cache On A Stick
COB         Chip-On-Board ( technology )
COB         Communicating OBject
CoBALT      Concurrent Broadcast Array Logic Technology ( design verification system )
COBOL       COmmon Business Oriented Language
COD         Cash On Delivery
COD         Catastrophic Optical Damage ( laser device failure mechanism )
CODEC       Coder/Decoder
COFDM       Coded Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplex ( digital broadcast television )
COFF        Common Object File Format
COG         Center Of Gravity
COG         Chip-On-Glas ( LCD )
COLIDAR     COherent-LIght Detection And Ranging
COM         Center for Optic Manufacturing ( at Ney York's University of Rochester )
COM         Component Object Model
CONELRAD    CONtrol of ELectromagnetic RADiations
COO         Chief Operating Officer
COOTS       Conference on Object-Oriented Technologies and Systems
COP         Coefficient Of Performance
COPIS       COnnector Product Information System ( Berg )
COPS        Calculator Oriented Processor System
CORBA       Common Object Request Broker Architecture
COS         Card Operating System
COS         Corona Oxyde Semiconductor ( technology )
COSPAR      COmmitee on SPAce Research
COSSH       Control Of Substances Hazardous to Health ( regulations )
COTS        Commercial Off The Shelf
CP          CellulosePropionat
CPCI        CompactPCI
CPE         Customer Premise Equipment
CPEM        Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements ( July 1998 Washington D.C. )
CPFSK       Continuous Phase Frequency-Shift Keying
cpi         characters per inch
CPI         Customer Price Index
CPIA        Colorado Photonics Industry Association ( Denver CO )
CPLD        Complex Programmable Logic Device
CPM         Communication Port Manager
CPM         Communications Processor Module
CPM         Critical Path Method [ Netzplantechnik ]
CP/M        Control Program for Microcomputers
CPNM        Calling Party Number Message
CPP         Communications-Protocol Processor
CPP         CP Protocol
CPSC        Consumer Product Safety Commission
CPTC        Ceramic Positive Teperature Coefficient ( device )
CPTWG       Copy Protection Technical Working Group
CPU         Central Processing Unit
CPW         CoPlanar Waveguide
CQFP        Ceramic Quad Flat Pack
Cr          Chromium
CR          Carriage Return ( ASCII control code )
CR          Certificate Request
CR          Chlorophene Rubber
CRADA       Cooperative Research And Development Agreement
CRC         Cyclic Redundancy Check
CRL         Certificate Revocation Lists
CRM         Customer Relationship Management
CRP         Cathode Ray Panel
CRS         Carrier-Sense ( signal )
CRT         Cathode-Ray Tube
CRU         Clock-Recovery Unit
Cs          Caesium [ Zäsium ]
CS          Card Services
CS          Chip Select
C/S         Client/Server ( system )
CSA         Canadian Standards Association
CSA         Canadian Standards Authority
CSA         Carrier-Serving Area
CSA         Communication Signal Analyzer
CSAM        C-mode Scanning Acoustic Microscope
CSC         Color Screen Controller
CSC         Customer Solution Core
CSCO        Consolidated Space Operations Center ( Colorado Springs )
C-SCPI      Compiled SCPI
CSD         Canonically Signed Digit ( code )
CSE         Configurable Sequential Element ( FPGA )
CSEM        Center Suisse d'Electrotechnique et de Microtechnique ( SA Neuchâtel Switzerland )
CSI         Color-Sequential Imaging ( LCD )
CSL         Computer Science Laboratory ( Xerox PARC )
CSL         Current-Sinking Logic
CSM         Cell Site Modem
CSM         Component and Supplier Management
CSM         Chartered Semiconductor Manufacturing ( Ltd. Singapore )
CSMA/CA     Carrier Sense Multiple Access, Collision Avoidance
CSMA/CD     Carrier Sense Multiple Access, Collision Detect
CSMA/CR     Carrier Sense, Multiple Access, with Collision Resolution
CSN         Circuit Switched Network
CSOA        Chopper-Stabilized Operational Amplifier
CSP         Chip-Scale Package
CSP         Chip-Sized Package
CSP         Cooperative Software Partners ( program )
CSP         Customizable Standard Product
CSPD        Communication-Signal-Path-Design ( methodology )
CSR         Capacitor Start and Run ( motor )
CSR         Control and Status Register
CSS         Channel Sequence Simulation
CSS         Content Scrambling System
CSTN        Color SuperTwisted Nematic ( LCD )
CSU         Channel Service Unit
CSV         Comma Separated Values
CS-ZVS      Current-Synchronous Zero-Voltage Switching
CT          Computer Telephony
CT          Computed Tomography
CT          Connecticut
CT          Cordless Telephone
CTA         Crack Tolerant Alumina ( ceramic )
CTC         Counter/Timer Circuit
CTE         Coefficient of linear Thermal Expansion
CTG         sense and Compare Timing Generator
CTI         Chromatic Technologies Incorporated ( Franklin MA )
CTI         Computer Telephony Integration
CTIA        Cellular Telecommunications Industry Association
CTL         Complementary Transistor Logic
CTM         Configurable Timer Module
CTM         Cordless Terminal Mobility ( DECT )
CTO         Chief Technical Officer
CTR         Common Technical Regulation
CTR         Current Transfer Ratio
CTR         Current Transformer Ratio
CTRON       Commercial TRON
CTS         Clear To Send
CTS         Component Transaction Server
CTSD        Continuous Time Sigma Delta ( AD Converter )
CTU         Caribbean Telecomunication Union
Cu          Cuprum [ Kupfer ]
CUT         Component Under Thermostasis
CV          Centrafour Vertical
CVBS        Composite Video Blanking Signal
CVC         Common Vision Concept
CVD         Chemical Vapor Deposition
CVE         Co-Verification Environment ( Mentor Graphics )
CVI         Complete Vertical Integration
CVRT        Cell Variation Recognition Technology
CVSD        Continuous-Variable-Slope Delta ( modulation )
CVT         Current Value Table
CW          Continuous Wave
CWT         Center Wing fuel Tank

d           deci ( 10^-1 )
DA          Destination Address
DA          Digital Audio
D/A         Digital-to-Analog
DAA         Data Access Adapter [ a telephone line interface ]
DAA         Data Access Arrangement
DAA         Deutsche Angestellten Akademie ( Hamburg Germany )
DAB         Data-Acquisition Board
DAB         Digital Audio Broadcasting
DAC         Data Access Console
DAC         Design Automation Conference
DAC         Digital-to-Analog Converter
DA&C        Data Acquisition & Control
DAD         Dual-Action Device
DAG         Data-Address Generator
DALI        Digital Addressable Lighting Interface
DAM         DECT Authentication Module
DAM         Digital Answering Machine
DAML        Digital Added Main Line
D-AMPS      Digital Advanced Mobile cellular-Phone Service
DAO         Data Access Objects
DAP         Data-Acquisition Processor
DAQ         Data AcQuisition
DARC        Deutscher Amateur-Radio-Club ( e.V. )
DARPA       Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency
DAS         Data Acquisition System
DAS         Dual Attach Station ( network )
DASC        Design Automation Standardization Committee
DASK        Digital Amplitude Shift Keying
DAT         Design Analysis Tool
DAT         Digital Audio Tape
DATAR       Délégation à l'Aménagement du Territoire et à l'Action Régionale [ Französische Raumordungsbehörde ]
DATE        Design, Automation, and Test in Europe [ Europe's annual showcase for electronic system design and test, 2000 Paris ]
DAU         Data Acquisition Unit
DAU         Digital-Analog-Umsetzer ( DAC )
DAV         DAta Valid ( GPIB )
DAvE        Digital Application virtual Engineer ( Infineon Siemens )
DAVIC       Digital Audio-VIsual Council
DAVID       Digital Audio/Video Interactive Decoder
dB          deciBel
dBc         deciBels relative to carrier power
dBFS        deciBels relative to Full Scale
dBm         deciBels relative to 1 milliwatt
DBM         Digital Bus Monitor
DBMS        DataBase Management System
DBP         Dynamic Bi-directional Power
DBPSK       Differential Binary Phase-Shift Keying
DBS         Direct Broadcast by Satellite
DBU         Display Business Unit ( IBM )
DC          Direct Current [ normally means a voltage or current which remains constant ]
DC          District Columbia
DC1         Device Code 1 ( ASCII control code )
DC2         Device Code 2 ( ASCII control code )
DC3         Device Code 3 ( ASCII control code )
DC4         Device Code 4 ( ASCII control code )
DCASP       Digitally Controlled Analog-Signal Processing
DCB         Device Control Block
DCB         Direct Copper Bonding
DCCH        Digital Control Channel
DCD         Data Carrier Detect
DCE         Data Communications Equipment ( MODEM, peripheral )
DCE         Distributed Computing Environment ( OSF )
DCI         Display-Control Interface
DCM         Design Chain Management
DCM         Discontinuous Conduction Mode ( SMPS )
DCME        Digital Circuit Multiplication Equipment
DCOM        Distributed Component Object Model
DCOM        Distributed COmputing Model
DCR         Direct-Conversion Receiver
DCRS        Distributed Controlling, Regulation and Supervision
DCS         Delay Calculation System ( OVI )
DCS         Digital Cellular System
DCS         Digitally Coded Squelch
DCS         Digital Control System
DCS         Distributed Control System
DCS         Dynamic Channel Selection
DCT         Direct Cosine Transform ( MPEG )
DCTL        Direct Coupled Transistor Logic
DCXO        Digital Controlled Xtal (=crystal) Oscillator
D&D         Drag and Drop
DDC         Digital Down Converter
DDC         Direct Digital Control
DDC         Display Data Channel ( VESA Standard )
DDD         Daily Direct Delivery
DDE         Dynamic Data Exchange ( Windows )
DDFS        Direc Digital Frequency Synthesizer
DDI         Direct Draw Interface
DDK         Driver Development Kit
DDL         Device Description Language
DDM         Device Driver Module
DDM         Driver Descriptor Map
DDN         Defense Data Network [ a single, wide area, packet-switching network that integrates the ARPANET research network and the MILNET defense network ]
DDP         Datagram Delivery Protocol [ an AppleTalk protocol managing socket-to-socket delivery of datagrams over a networking system ]
DDP         Double Detect and Protect
DDP         Dynamic Distribution Planner
DDR         Deutsche Demokratische Republik
DDR         Double Data Rate ( DRAM )
DDRR        Directional Discontinuity Ring Radiator
DDS         Digital Data Service
DDS         Direct Digital Synthesis
DDS         Dynamic Deployment Scheduler
DDST        Data-Driven Self-Timing ( register )
DDTN        Domain-Divided Twisted-Nematic ( LCD )
DDVT        Dynamic Data Visualization development Tool
DDWG        Digital Display Working Group
DEC         Digital Equipment Corporation ( Hudson MA )
DECC        Drug Effects Clinical Chemistry
DECT        Digital European Cordless Telephone ( 1.88-1.90 GHz )
DECT        Digitally Enhanced Cordless Telephone
DECUS       Digital Equipment Computer Users Society
DEF         Design-Exchange Format
DEG         Debug Event Generation
DEL         Delete ( ASCII control code )
DELTIC      Delay-Line Time Compression
DEM         Dynamic Element Matching
DEMKO       Danmarks Elektriske Materielkontrol
DEMUX       Demultiplexer
DEP         Debug Event Processing
DEP         Department of Environmental Protection
DERA        Defense and Evaluation Research Agency ( UK government )
DES         Data Encryption Standard
DESC        Defense Electronics Supply Center ( Dayton OH )
DFB         Distributed FeedBack ( laser )
DFC         Data-Flow Controller
DFE         Decision Feedback Equalizer
DFE         Digital Front End
DFE         Design For the Environment
DFF         D type Flip-Flop
DFG         Deutsche ForschungsGemeinschaft
DFM         Design For Manufacturability
DFN         Deutsches ForschungsNetz
DFPC        Digital Frequency-Phase Comparator
DFQ         Design For Quality
DFT         Design For Testability
DFT         Discrete Fourier Transform
DFÜ         DatenFernÜbertragung
DG LILET    Double-Gate Lateral-Inversion-Layer Emitter Transistor
DGM         Data Grade Media
DGO         Deutsche Gesellschaft für Galvano- und Oberflächentechnik
DGPS        Differential Global Positioning System
DGQ         Deutsche Gesellschaft für Qualität ( e.V. Frankfurt Germany )
DGzRS       Deutsche Gesellschaft zur Rettung Schiffbrüchiger
DHCP        Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
DHCP        Dynamic Host-Control Protocol
DHHS        Department of Health and Human Services
DHTML       Dynamic HTML
DI          Dielectric Isolation
DIB         Device Information Block
DIC         Differential Interference Contrast ( optical inspection )
DIE         Device Information Exchange ( format )
DIHT        Deutscher Industrie- und HandelsTag
DII         Dynamic Invocation Interface
DIL         Dual-In-Line ( package )
DIMM        Dual-in-Line Memory Module
DIN         Deutsches Institut für Normung / Deutsche Industrie-Norm
DIO         Data Input Output ( GPIB )
DIP         Dual-In-line Package
DIS         Draft International Standards
DIVA        Dynamic Interprocessor Voice Allocation
DIY         Do-It-Yourself
DK          DezimalKlassifikation
DKD         Deutscher KalibrierDienst ( PTB )
DL          DataLogging
DLC         Data Link Control ( layer )
DLC         Digital Loop Carrier
DLCI        Data-Link-Connection Identifier
DLE         Data Link Escape ( ASCII control code )
DLIF        Double-Low-IF ( receiver )
DLL         Data Link Layer ( network )
DLL         Dynamic Link Library ( Windows )
DLP         Device-Level Placer
DLP         Digital Light Processing ( technology )
DLR         Direct Labor Rate
DLT         Digital Linear Tape ( Quantum )
DLVA        Detector Logarithmic Video Amplifier
DMA         Deadline Monotonic Analysis
DMA         Direct Memory Access
DMAG        Deutsche Messe AktienGesellschaft ( Hannover Germany )
DMAG        Dynamic Micro Architecture Generation
DMASS       Distributors' and Manufacturers' Association of Semiconductor Specialists
DMB         Digital Media Broadcast
D-MCA       Digital MultiChannel Access
DMCC        Digital Modular Computing Components ( DEC )
DMD         Digital Micromirror Device
DME         DiMethyl Ether
DMGH        Double Metal Guest Host ( LCD module )
DMI         Desktop Management Interface
DMM         Digital MultiMeter
dmmv        deutscher multimedia verband ( Germany )
DMOS        Double-diffused Metal-Oxide Semiconductor
DMS         DehnungsMessStreifen
DMT         Discrete Multi-Tone
DMTF        Desktop Management Task Force
DMU         Digital MockUp ( product simulation )
DNA         Deutscher NormenAusschuss
DNC         Direct Numerical Control
DNL         Differential Non-Linearity
DNL         Dynamic Noise Limiter
DNL         Dynamic NonLinearity
DNS         Domain Name System/Service
DNV         Det Norske Veritas
DO          Diode Outline [ U.S. American (JEDEC) code for standardized diode packages, i.e. DO-5, DO-34 etc. ]
DOC         Department Of Commerce
DOCSIS      Data-Over-Cable-Service Interface Specification
DOD         Department Of Defence
DOE         Diffractive Optical Element
DOE         Department Of Energy
DOE         Design Of Experiment
DOL         Department Of Labor
DOL         Direct-On-Line ( technique )
DOORS       Dynamic Object Oriented Requirements System
DOP         DiOctylPhtalate
DOS         Disk Operating System
DOT         Department Of Transportation
DPA         Distributed Power Architecture
DPA         Duralink Port Aggregation ( software package )
DPC         Deferred-Procedure Call
DPDT        Double-Pole Double-Throw ( switch )
DPI         Dots Per Inch
DPLL        Digital Phase-Locked Loop
DPLM        Dual-Ported Local Memory ( architecture )
DPM         Defectives per Million
DPM         Device Partition Map
DPM         Digital Panel Meter
DPM         Dual-Port Memory
DPMCC       Dual PCI Mezzanine Card Carrier
DPMS        Display Power-Management Signaling ( VESA standard )
DPO         Digital Phosphor Oscilloscope ( Tektronix )
DPR         Dual-Port RAM
DPSK        Differential Phase Shift Keying
DPST        Discrete Power & Signal Technologies ( division, Fairchild )
DPST        Double-Pole Single-Throw ( switch )
DPWM        Digital Pulse-Width Modulation
DQPSK       Differential Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying
DQRUMA      Distributed-Queueing Request Update Multiple Access
DRA         Defense Research Agency ( UK )
DRAM        Dynamic Random Access Memory
DRC         Design Rule Checking
DREAM       Design Rule Enforcer And Manager
DReAM       Distributed Resources Allocation Manager ( Sun )
DREN        Defense Research and Engineering Network
DRIE        Deep Reactive Ion Etching
DRO         Data Replication Option
DRO         Dielectric-Resonator Oscillator
DRS         Design Requirements Sheet
DRTO        Delayed Return-To-One
DRTZ        Delayed Return-To-Zero
DS          Diode Standard [ U.S. American code for JEDEC standard diode packages ]
DS          Direct Sequence
DS-CDMA     Direct-Sequence Code-Division Multiple-Access
DSC         Digital Still Camera
DSD         Direct-Stream Digital ( recording )
DSF         Device Special Function ( SGRAM )
DSF         Dispersion Shifted Fiber
DSI         Distributed Systems Interface
DSI         Dynamic Skeleton Interface
DSL         Design Synthesis Language
DSL         Digital Subscriber Line/Loop
DSL         Domain-Specific Language
DSLA        Digital Subscriber Loop Analogue ( modem )
DSLAM       Digital-Subscriber-Line-Access Multiplexer
DSM         Deep SubMicron ( design )
DSM-CC      Digital Storage Media - Command and Control
DSO         Data Source Object ( HTML )
DSO         Digital Storage Oscilloscope
DSP         Digital Signal Processing/Processor
DSPF        Detailed/Distributed Standard Parasitic Format
DSPSE       DSP Software Engineering ( Inc. Bedford MA )
DSR         Data Set Ready [ an RS-232-C signal from a DCE to a DTE indicating that the DCE has established a connection ]
DSS         Digital Satellite Service
DSS         Double-sacrificial Silicon-nitride Sidewall
DSSS        Direct-Sequence Spread-Spectrum ( RF transmission )
DSTN        Double Super Twisted Nematic ( LCD )
DSU         Data Service Unit
DSVD        Digital Simultaneous Voice and Data ( standard V.70 )
DTAB        Demountable Tape-Automated Bonding
DTAD        Digital Telephone Answering Device
DTC         Direct Torque Controlled ( drive )
DTCXO       Digitally-controlled Temperature-Compensated Crystal Oscillator
DTD         Detailed Timing Descriptor
DTE         Data Terminal Equipment [ computer, PC ]
DTH         Direct-To-Home ( satellite system )
DTI         Department of Trade and Industry ( British )
DTL         Diode-Transistor Logic
DTMF        Dual Tone Multiple Frequency
DTP         Datagrade (unshielded) Twisted Pair
DTP         Desk Top Publishing
DTR         Data Terminal Ready [ an RS-232-C signal from a DTE to a DCE indicating a readiness to transmit or receive data ]
DTR         Dedicated Token Ring
DTS         Digital Theater Sound
DTS         Digital Time Scope
DTS         Display Technology Systems ( St. Paul MN )
DTTB        Digital Terrestrial Television Broadcasting
DTV         Digital TeleVision
DUART       Dual Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter
DUPS        DC Uninterruptible Power Supply
DUT         Device Under Test
DVB         Digital Video Broadcast
DVB-CAM     Digital Video Broadcasting Conditional Access Module
DVB CI      Digital Video Broadcasting Common Interface
DVD         Digital Versatile Disk
DVD         Digital Video Disk
DVE         Digital Video Encoder
DVI         Digital Visual Interface
DVM         Digital Volt-Meter
DVR         Digital Video Recorder
DWA         Data-Weighted Averaging
DWA         DiebstahlWarnAnlage
DWARF       Debug With Arbitrary Record Format
DWDM        Dense Wavelength-Division Multiplexing ( network )
D-WDM       Dense Wave Division Multiplexing
DWG         Development Working Group
DWMT        Discrete Wavelet Multi-Tone
DXC         Digital cross(X) Connector
Dy          Dysprosium

e           Euler's number 2.71828... [ base of natural logarithm and exponential function ]
E           Exa [ 10^18 ]
E1          European level 1 ( telephony interface 2 Mbit/s )
E3          European level 3 ( telephony interface 34 Mbit/s )
E4          European level 4 ( telephony interface 140 Mbit/s )
EAB         Embedded Array Block ( Altera )
EABI        Embedded Applications Binary Interface
EAL         Educational Assistance Ltd. ( Glen Ellyn IL )
EAM         Electro-Absorption Modulator
EAM         Enterprise Asset Management
EAN         Engineering Application Note
EAROM       Electrically Alterable Read-Only Memory
EAS         Electronic Article Surveillance ( system )
EASE        Embedded Application Software Enabler
EASI        Embedded All-in-one System Interface
EBCDIC      Extended Binary Code Decimal Interchange Code ( IBM )
EBCo        Ensign-Bickford Company ( Simsbury CT )
EBCP        Ericsson Bluetooth Core Product
EBDK        Ericsson Bluetooth Developers Kits
EBX         Embedded Board, eXpandable ( standard )
EC          Embedded Controller
EC          European Community
ECB         Electronically Controlled Birefringence ( LCD )
ECB         Electronic Code Book
ECBS        European Committee for Banking Standards
ECC         Error Checking and Correcting
ECCA        European Cable Communications Association
ECCSL       Emitter-Coupled Current Steered Logic
ECE         Electrical and Computer Engineering ( school )
ECG         ElectroCardioGram
ECHS        Extended Cylinder Head Sector
ECIX        Electronic Component Information eXchange
ECK         Embedded Components Kit
ECL         Emitter-Coupled Logic [ unsaturated logic performed by emitter-coupled transistors ]
ECLinPS     ECL in PicoSeconds ( logic family )
ECMA        European Computer Manufacturers Association
ECO         Electron-Coupled Oscillator
ECO         Engineering Change Order
ECP         Extended Capabilities Port
ECS         Enhanced Cycle Simulation
ECS         Event Communications Service
ECSP        Environmentally-considered Chip Scale Package
ECTF        Enterprise Computer Telephony Forum
ECTFT       Elevated-Channel TFT
ECU         Electronic Control Unit
ECU         Engine Control Unit
ECVS        Extended Clustered Voltage Scaling ( structure )
EDA         Electronic Design Automation
EDAC        Electronic Design Automation Consortium
EDB         Economic Development Board ( Singapore )
EDC         Error Detection and Correction
EDE         Embedded Development Environment
EDFA        Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier
EDGE        Enhanced Data rates over GSM Evolution
EDH         Error Detection and Handling
EDI         Electronic Data Interchange
EDI         Emulator Device Interface
EDID        Extended Display Identification Data
EDIF        Electronic Data Interchange Format
EDIF        Electronic Design Interoperability/Interchange Format
EDLC        Electrochemical Double-Layer Capacitor
EDM         Electrical Discharge Machining
EDM         Electronic Document Management
EDM         Engineering Data Management
EDMS        Engineering Data Management System
EDO         Extended Data Out
EDR         Enhanced Data Rate
EDT         Ethylene Diamine Tartrate
ED&TC       European Design & Test Conference
EDV         Elektronische DatenVerarbeitung
EDVA        Elektronische DatenVerarbeitungsAnlage
EDVS        Electronic Design Validation System
EDX         Energy-Dispersive X-ray
E²PROM      Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory
EE          Electronic Engineer
EEA         European Economic Area
EEC         European Economic Community
EECA        European Electronic Component manufacturers Association
EEG         ElektroEnzephaloGrafie
EEM         Electronic Engineers Master ( catalog )
EEMBC       EDN Embedded Microprocessor Benchmark Consortium
EEPLD       Electrically Erasable PLD
EEPROM      Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory
EER         Envelope Elimination and Restoration ( scheme )
EERI        Engineering Expertise Reuse Information
EEST        Enhanced Ethernet Serial Transceiver ( MC68160 )
EET         Electronics Engineering Technology
EFB         Europäische Forschungsgesellschaft für Blechverarbeitung
EFI         External Features Interface
EFI         External Frequency Input
EFIP        European Federation of Interconnection and Packaging
EFM         Eight-to-Fourteen Modulation
EFP         Exponential Floating-point Processing
EFQM        European Foundation for Quality Management
EFR         Enhanced Full Rate ( vocoder )
EFT         Electrical Fast Transient
EF&T        Environmental Fate and Transport ( of explosive signature molecules )
EFTA        European Free Trade Association
EGA         Enhanced Graphics Adaptor
EGB         Elektrostatisch Gefährdete Bauelemente
EGNOS       European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service
EGP         Exterior Gateway Protocol
E-GSM       Extended Global System for Mobile communication
EHCI        Enhanced Host-Controller Interface
EHF         Extremely High Frequency ( 30-300GHz )
EHPI        Enhanced Host-Port Interface
EHSA        European Home Systems Association
EHT         Extremely High Tension
EIA         Electronics Industry Alliance
EIA         Electronic Industries Association
EIAJ        Electronic Industries Association of Japan
EID         Electronic Information Display
EID         Embedded Internet Device
EIF         Electronics Industries Forum
EIF         Electronic Industries Foundation ( EIA )
EIOS        Extended Input/Output System
EIR         Equipment Identity Register ( GSM )
EIRP        Equivalent Isotropically Radiated Power
EIS         Executive Information System
EISA        Extended Industry Standard Architecture
EITO        European Information Technology Observatory ( Frankfurt, Germany )
EIU         Economist Intelligence Unit
EKG         ElektroKardioGrafie
EKI         Electronic Keyboards Inc. ( Linden VA )
EL          ElectroLuminescence
ELD         ElectroLuminescent Display
ELDEC       European LSI Design and Engineering Center
ELDL        Emergency Lighting Design Lumens
ELF         Executable and Linkable Format
ELIC        Extended Line Card Controller
ELM         Electrical Link Module
EM          ElectroMechanical
EM          End of Medium ( ASCII control code )
EMC         ElectroMagnetic Compatibility
EMC         ElectroMagnetic Compliance
EMCTLA      ElectroMagnetic Compatibility Test Labs Association
EMD         Electronic Measurements Division ( HP, Loveland CO )
EMD         Engineering, Manufacturing, and Development
EMEA        Europe, the Middle East and Africa
EM/EDA      ElectroMechanical/Electronic Design Automation
EMF         ElectroMagnetic Field
EMF         ElectroMotive Force
EMG         ElectroMyoGram
EMI         ElectroMagnetic Interference [ caused by current or voltage induced into a signal conductor by an EMF ]
EMIF        External Memory Interface
EMIT        Embedded Micro-Interface Technology
EMK         ElektoMotorische Kraft
EMMI        EMission MIcroscopy
EMP         ElectroMagnetic Pulse
EMR         ElectroMechanical Relay
EMS         Equipment Management Service
EMS         Expanded Memory Specification ( DOS )
EMSS        ElectroMechanical System Simulator
EMTP        ElectroMagnetic Transient Program ( circuit simulator )
EMU         Electrical Multiple Unit
EMV         ElektroMagnetische Verträglichkeit
EMVG        EMV-Gesetz
EN          European Norm
ENBW        Equivalent Noise BandWidth
ENDEC       Encoder-Decoder
ENIAC       Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer ( 1946 )
ENOB        Effective Number Of Bits ( ADC )
ENQ         ENQuiry ( ASCII control code )
ENSI        Equivalent Noise-Sideband Input
EO          Electro-Optical ( material )
EOC         Embedded Operations Channel
EOC         End Of Carrier
EOD         End Of Data
EOF         End Of File
EOF         End Of Frame
EOI         End Or Identify
EOLM        End Of Line Monitor
EOMS        Engineering Object Management System
EOS         Electrical OverStress
EOT         End Of Tape
EOT         End Of Transmission ( ASCII control code )
EPA         Environmental Protection Agency
EPA         Event Processor Array
EPAC        Electrically Programmable Analog Circuit
EPAC        Electronic Packaging and Assembly Concept
EPIC        Explicitly Parallel Instruction Computing
EPIC        Extended PCM Interface Controller
E-PAC       Electronic Packaging Assembly Concept
EPD         Enhanced Punch-through Diode
EPG         Electronic Program Guide ( TV )
E-pHEMT     Enhancement-mode pseudomorphic High Electron Mobility Transistor
EPIC        Electric Power Innerurban Commuter
EPIC        Enhanced Performance Ion-implanted CMOS ( process )
EPIC        Explicitly Parallel Instruction Computing
EPICS       European Production Information and Control System
EPID        ElectroPhoretic Image Display
EPL         Electron Projection Lithography
EPP         Enhanced Parallel Port
EPP         Expanded PolyPropylene
EPROM       Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory
EPSMA       European Power Supply Manufacturers Association
EPSS        Electronic Performance Support System [ context-sensitive help system ]
EQA         European Quality Award
EQM         Event Qualification Module
Er          Erbium
ER          Earth Recall
EREM        Energy Resolved Emission Microscopy
ERM         Enterprise Resource Management
ERMES       European Radio-MEssage System
ERP         Effective Radiated Power
ERP         Enterprise Resource Planning
ERP         Event-Related Potential [ neural patterns intended to be used to control prosthetic limbs ]
ERS         Emissions Reference Source ( EMC )
ERSO        Electronics Research & Service Organisation ( Taiwan )
Er:YAG      Erbium:Yttrium Aluminum Garnet ( Laser optical element )
ESA         Embedded Server Architecture
ESA         European Space Agency
ESBU        Embedded Systems Business Unit ( IBM )
ESC         ElectroStatic Chuck
ESC         Embedded Systems Conference
ESC         Engineering Solution Center ( IAO )
ESC         ESCape ( ASCII control code )
ESCD        Extended System Configuration Data
ESD         Electronic Software Distribution
ESD         ElectroStatic Discharge
ESDA        Electronic Systems Design Automation
ESDI        Enhanced Small Drive/Device Interface
ESDS        ElectroStatic Discharge Sensitive
ESER        EinheitsSystem der Elektronischen Rechentechnik ( des RGW )
ESF         Extended Super Frame
ESG         EinscheibenSicherheitsGlas
ESH         Equivalent Sunshine Hours
ESL         Electronic System Level
ESL         Equivalent Series L(inductance)
ESOFTA      Embedded Software Association
ESP         Embedded System Products
ESR         Electron Spin Resonance
ESR         Equivalent Series Resistance
ESR         Even Service Routine
ESRO        European Space Research Organisation
ESS         Environmental Stress Screening
ESSA        Environmental Survey SAtellite
ESSCIRC     European Solid State CIRcuits Conference
ESSDERC     European Solid-State DEvice Research Conference
ESSI        Extended Synchronous Serial Interface
ESTP        Einheitliches System der Toleranzen und Passungen ( des RGW )
ESU         ElektroSchlackeUmschmelzverfahren
ET          Exchange Termination
ETA         Electronic Travel Aid
ETAP        Extended Test Access Port
ETB         End of Transmission Block ( ASCII control code )
eTBC        embedded Test Bus Controller ( SN74LVT8980 )
ETC         Electronic Toll Collection
ETF         Equalized Transfer Function
ETI         Embed The Internet ( consortium )
ETL         Enhanced Transceiver Logic
ETN         Enhanced Twisted Nematic ( LCD )
ETOX        EPROM Tunnel Oxide
ETQFP       Enhanced Thin Quad Flat Pack
ETRI        Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute ( Taejon Korea )
ETS         Embedded Tool Suite
ETS         Equivalent Time Sampling
ETS         European Telecommunications Standard
ETSI        European Telecommunications Standards Institute
ETU         Emulation and Test Unit
ETX         End of TeXt ( ASCII control code )
Eu          Europium
EU          European Union
EUH         Erase Unit Header
EUROS       Enhanced Universal Real-time Operationg System
EUT         Equipment Under Test
EUV         Extreme UltraViolet [ optical lithography technology ]
EUV (LLC)   Extreme UltraViolet Limited Liability Company ( San Jose CA )
eV          electron Volt
EV          Electric Vehicle
EVA         Extended Viewing Angle ( technology LCD )
EVA         Extreme Value Analysis
EVBIT       [ Öffentliche Vergabeordnung für Softwareaufträge ]
EVC         Enhanced Video Connector
EVF         Embedded Vector Format
EVM         Embedded Virtual Machine
EVM         Error-Vector Magnitude
EVM         Evaluation Module
EVU         EnergieVersorgungsUnternehmen
EWCAP       Electrical Wiring Component Applications Partnership
EZB         Europäische ZentralBank

f           femto ( 10^-15 )
F           Farad ( capacitance, 1 F = 1 C / V )
FAA         Federal Aviation Administration
FACT        Fairchild Advanced CMOS Technology
FACT        Federation Automatic Coding Technologies
FAE         Field Application Engineer
FAIS        Factory Automation Interface Specification
FALC        Frame and Line Interface Component
FAMOS       Fast Analysis and Monitoring Of Signals
FAPS        FertigungsAutomatisierung und ProduktionsSystematik ( Lehrstuhl FAPS, Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Germany )
FAQ         Frequently Asked Questions
FASIC       Function- and Algorithm-Specific Integrated Circuit
FASL        Fujitsu AMD Semiconductor Ltd. ( Fab Japan )
FAST        Fairchild Advanced Schottky Technology
FAST        Flexible Accelerated Stress Test
FAT         File Allocation Table
FAT-ID      Frequency-Amplitude Time Impedance and Dimension ( EMI )
FAX         Facsimile
FB          Frame Buffer
FBGA        Fine-Pitch Ball Grid Array
FBS         FunktionBausteinSprache ( SPS )
FBSOA       Forward Biased Safe Operating Area ( transistor parameters )
FC          Fibre Channel
FC          Frame Control
FCAL        Fibre Channel Arbitrated Loop
FCB         File Control Block
FCB         Frequency Coordinating Board
FCC         Federal Communications Commission ( Washington DC )
FCDL        Folded Cascoded Differential Logic
FC-EL       Fibre Channel Enhanced Loop
FCI         Framatome Connectors International ( France )
FCL         FET Coupled Logic
FCL         Fibre Channel Loop
FCLC        Fibre Channel Loop Community
FC-LE       Fibre Channel Link Encapsulation
FCM         Fast Component Mounter ( Philips Bestückungsautomat )
FCP         Function Control Protocol
FCRAM       Fast Cycle RAM
FCS         Frame Check Sequence
FCSI        Fibre Channel Systems Initiative
FC-SL       Fibre Channel Slotted Loop
FCT         Fast CMOS Technology
FDA         Food and Drug Administration
FDB         Filtered DataBase
FDC         Floppy Disk Controller
FDD         Frequency Division Duplex
FDDI        Fiber Distributed Data Interface
FDDR        Fuzzy Decision Desk Relation
FDI         Flash Data Integrator
FDIS        Final Draft International Standard [ international fieldbus standard IEC 61158 ]
FDL         Folded Differential Logic
FDM         Fused Deposition Modelling
FDMA        Frequency-Division Multiple-Access
FDNR        Frequency-Dependent Negative Resistor
FDR         Final Design Review
FDTD        Finite Difference Time Domain ( solver )
FDX         Full Duplex
Fe          Ferrum [ Eisen ]
FEA         Field-Emitter Array ( display )
FEA         Finite Element Analysis
FEC         Forward Error Correction
FED         Fachverband Elektronik-Design ( e.V. Berlin Germany )
FED         Field-Emission Display
FEE         Fédération des Experts comptables Européens
FEFI        Far-End Fault-Indication
FEI         Federation of the Electronics Industry ( UK )
FEM         Finite Element Method
F-ES        Fixed-End System
FET         Field-Effect Transistor
FEXT        Far-End X(cross) Talk
FF          Fieldbus Foundation
FF          Flip-Flop
FF          Form Feed ( ASCII control code )
FFE         Feed Forward Equalizer
FFM         Full Functional Model
FFSK        Four-level Frequency-Shift Keying
FFT         Fast Fourier Transform
FGC         Fast-Gas Chromatography
FH          Frequency Hopping
FhG         Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft
FHSS        Frequency-Hopping Spread-Spectrum ( RF transmission )
FWHM        Full-Width Half Maximum [ the width of a pulse at 50% amplitude used to measure the duration of a signal ]
FI          Finnland, Sähkötarkastuslaitos ( Prüfzeichen )
FIB         Focused Ion Beam
FIB/SEM     Focused Ion Beam/Scanning Electron Microscope
FIC         Fast Information Channel ( generator )
FIFO        First-In/First-Out ( memory )
FIPS        Federal Information Processing Standards
FIPSOC      Field-Programmable System On a Chip
FIR         Finite duration Impulse Response
FIR         Finite Impulse Response ( filter )
FIRE        Fully Integrated RISC Emulator
FIRST       Fraunhofer-Institut für Rechnerarchitektur und SoftwareTechnik
FIT         Failure In Time
FITL        Fiber In The Loop
FL          Florida
FLC         Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal ( technology )
FLC         Fire Lighter Circuit
FLC         Full Load Current
FLEX        Fast Language for Execution
FLIM        Fluorescence Lifetime IMaging
FLOPS       FLOating-Point operations per Second
FLT         Full Load Torque
FM          Fault Management ( ATM )
FM          Flash Manager
FM          Frequency Modulation
FMCW        Frequency-Modulated Continuous Wave ( RADAR )
FMEA        Failure Mode and Effect Analysis
FMI         Fluorescent Microthermal Imaging
FMM         Flash Media Manager
FMUP        Flash Memory Update Program
FMVG        Front Mounted Valve Gate
FN          Fowler-Nordheim ( tunneling )
FNC         Federal Network Council
FNT         Förderkreis Neue Technologien ( München Germany )
FO          Fiber Optic
FOB         Fiber Outlet Box
FOC         Field Oriented Control
FOE         Focus Of Expansion
FOIRL       Fibre Optic Inter-Repeater Link
FORTRAN     FORmula TRANSlator ( programming language )
FOSI        Free-Space Optical Interconnect
FOUP        Front Opening Unified Pod
FP          Fabry-Perrot ( LASER )
FP          Fixed Part ( DECT basestation )
FP          Flat Package
FPAA        Field Programmable Analog Array
FPAD        Field-Programmable Analog Device
FPC         Ferrite Polymer Composite
FPC         Flexible Printed Circuit
FPCB        Field Programmable Circuit Board
FPD         Field-Programmable Device
FPD         Flat Panel Display
FPDI        Flat Panel Display Interface
FPDM        Flat Panel Display Measurements ( VESA )
FPDP        Front-Panel Data Port
FPGA        Field Programmable Gate Array
FPI         Field Programmable Instrument
FPI         Flexible Peripheral Interconnect ( bus )
FPIC        Field Programmable Interconnect Component ( Aptix )
FPID        Field Programmable Interconnect Device
FPL         Functional Protocol Language
FPLA        Field Programmable Logic Array
FPLMTS      Future Public Land Mobile Telecommunication System
FPM         Fast Page Mode
FPM         Flat Protected-Mode
FPMSD       Field-Programmable Mixed-Signal Device
FPN         Fine Print Note
FPN         Fixed-Pattern Noise
FPN         Floating-Point Number
FPP         Finite Position Potentiometer
fps         frames per second ( video )
FPSC        Field Programmable Standard Cells ( Lucent )
FPSC        Field Programmable System Chip ( Lucent )
FPSCR       Floating-Point Status and Control Register
FPSLIC      Field Programmable System Level Integrated Circuit ( Atmel )
FPU         Floating-Point Unit
FQD         Full-Quadrature Decoding
FQDN        Fully Qualified Domain Name ( TCP/IP, DNS )
FRAD        Frame Relay Access Device
FRAM        Ferroelectric RAM
FRB         Federal Reserve Board
FRC         Frame Rate Control ( LCD )
FRED        Fast Recovery Epitaxial Diode
FRF         Frequency-Response Function
FRL         Filter, Regulator & Lubricator
FS          File Separator ( ASCII control code )
FS          Full Scale
FSAN        Full Service Access Network
FSB         Front-Side Bus
FSB         Functional System Block ( ASIC )
FSD         File System Driver
FSIS        Food Safety Inspection Service
FSK         Frequency-Shift Keying
FSM         Finite State Machine
FSO         Full Scale Output
FSR         Full Scale Range ( ADC )
FSR         Full Scale Reading
FSRAM       Fast Static Random Access Memory
FSS         Fixed Satellite Service ( DBS )
FST         Flat Square Tube
FSTN        Film SuperTwist Nematic [ a type of LCD ]
FSTN        Foil-compensated Super Twisted Nematic ( LCD )
F-STN       Film-SuperTwist Nematic ( LCD )
FSW         Friction Stir Welding
FTA         Fault Tree Analysis
FTC         Federal Trade Commission
FTG         Force stimulus Timing Generator
FTL         File-Transfer Language
FTL         Flash Translation Layer
FTO         Fault Tolerant Option
FTP         File Transfer Protocol
FTS         Fahrerloses TransportSystem
FTTB        Fibre-To-The-Building
FTTC        Fibre-To-The-Curb
FTTCab      Fibre-To-The-Cabinet
FTTH        Fiber To The Home
FTZ         FernmeldeTechnisches Zentralamt
FUBAR       Fucked Up Beyond All Recognition ( net slang )
FUNI        Frame-based User-to-Network Interface
FUP         FUnktionsPlan ( SPS )
FVC         Frequency-to-Voltage Converter
FW          FriktionsWickelwelle
FWIW        For What It's Worth ( net slang )
FYI         For Your Information ( net slang )
FZP         Fast Zero Power ( design technique )

g           gramm ( mass )
G           Giga ( 10^9 )
Ga          Gallium
GA          Georgia
GaAs        Gallium Arsenide
GAE         GesamtAnlagenEffektivität
GAIM        GSM Analog Interfacing Module
GAL         Generic Array Logic ( PLD )
GaN         Gallium Nitride
GAO         General Accounting Office
GAP         Generic Access Profile ( DECT )
GATE        Gestão Administrativa Total de Empresas
GATS        General Agreement on Trade in Services
GATT        General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
GBBC        GSM BaseBand Codec
GBIC        GigaBit Interface Card
GBIC        GigaBit Interface Converter
GBL         Grace Bio-Labs ( Bend OR )
GBS         Global Broadcast System
GBW         Gain-BandWidth ( product )
GCA         Gain-Controlled Amplifier
GCB         Global Configuration Block
GCCB        Geographical Change Control Board
GCI         General Circuit Interface
GCMOS       Graded-Complementary MOS
GCSR        Grammar Controlled Speech Recognition System
GCT         Gate-Controlled Thyristor
Gd          Gadolinium
GDB         GNU source-level DeBugger
GDI         Generic Device Interface ( ASAM )
GDI         Graphics-Driven Interface
GDR         German Democratic Republic ( DDR )
GDSII       Graphic Design System II
GDX         Generic Digital Crosspoint ( switch )
Ge          Germanium
GE          Gigabit Ethernet
GEA         Gigabit Ethernet Alliance
GEIS        General Electric Information Systems
GEM         Generic Equipment Model
GEMAC       GEsellschaft für Mikroelektronik-Anwendung Chemnitz
GEPDIS      Global Embedded Processor Debug Interface Standard
GET         Group Execute Trigger ( GPIB )
GFC         Generic Flow Control ( ATM )
GFCI        Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter
GFIN        Gesellschaft Für INstandhaltung ( München Germany )
GFK         GlasFaserverstärkter Kunststoff
GfK         Gesellschaft für Konsumforschung ( Nürnberg Germany )
GFM         Graphics File Manager
GfN         Gesellschaft für Netzwerktraining ( AG Reutlingen Germany )
GfS         Gesellschaft für Standardisierung ( DDR )
GfS         Gesellschaft für Strukturanalyse ( Aachen Germany )
GFSK        Gaussian-filtered Frequency-Shift Keying
GFT         Gemeinschaft FernmeldeTechnik [ Unternehmensverbund mittelständischer Telekom-Systemhäuser ]
GKW         GüterKraftWagen
GGG         Gadolinium Gallium Garnet
GGS         GüteGemeinschaft Software ( e.V. Germany )
GGSE        Gravity Gradient Stabilization Experiment
GIC         Generalized Impedance Converter
GIF         Graphic Image File
GIMEI       Geometry Independent Measured Equation of Invariance
GIMS        Global Inventory Management System
GIOP        General Inter-ORB Protocol
GIPS        Giga Instructions Per Second
GIS         GeoInformationsSysteme
GIT         GasInnendruckTechnik
GL          Germanischer Lloyd
GLEAM       Genetic Learning Algorithm and Method
GLL         GlimmLeuchtstoffLampe
GLM         Gigabit Link Module
GLONASS     GLObal NAvigation by Satellite System ( GPS system )
GLPNP       Gate-defined Lateral PNP ( transistor )
GLT         GebäudeLeitTechnik
GLU         General Logic Unit [ a class of custom integrated circuits used as interfaces between different parts of the computer ]
GLV         Grating Light Valve ( technology )
GMAC        Gigabit Media Access Controller
GMII        Gigabit Media Independent Interface
GMM         Graphical MultiMeter ( Fluke )
GMPCS       Global Mobile Personal Communications by Satellite
GMR         Giant Magneto-Resistive ( head, sensor )
GMSK        Gaussian-filtered Minimum-Shift Keying ( modulation )
GMT         Greenwich Mean Time
GND         GrouND
GNOME       GNU Network Object Modeling Environment
GNU         GNU's Not Unix
GOC-NAND    Gate-Offset Cell NAND [ flash memory storage cell ]
GOES        Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite
GOLD        GSM One-chip Logic Device
GOLD-SP     GOLD Signal Processor
GO-MVIP     Global Organisation of MVIP
GOMSFE      Generic Object Models for Substation and Feeder Equipment ( UCA )
GOP         Group Of Pictures
GOPS        Giga-Operations Per Second
GPC         Graphics Performance Characterization ( group SPEC )
GPC         Graphic Programming Console
GPF         General Protection Fault
GPi         General Purpose input [ a pin that receives whatever clock signal frequency an external peripheral device sends to it, allowing the external device to control the timing and the rate of information in and out of the serial port, rather than the rate being controlled by the computer ]
GPIB        General Purpose Interface Bus
GPIO        General Purpose Input-Output
GPL         Graphical Programming Language
GPR         General Purpose Register
GPRS        General Packet Radio Service ( GSM )
GPS         Global Positioning System/Satellite
GPSR        Global Positioning System Receiver
GRM         General Routing Matrix
GRP         Global Routing Pool
GS          Geprüfte Sicherheit
GS          Group Separator ( ASCII control code )
GSC         Gray Scale Controller
GSI         GigaScale Integration
GSM         Global System for Mobile communications
GSM         Groupe Speciale Mobile ( digital mobile telephones )
GSMP        General Switch and Management Protocol
GSM-R       Global System for Mobile communication - Rail
GSM-USSD    GSM Unstructured Supplementary Service Data
GSN         Global Subscriber Number
GS'X        Global Semiconductor eXchange
GTAC        Global Telecommunications Action Committee
GTG         Geared Turbine Grinder
GTL         Go To Local ( GPIB )
GTL         Gunning Transceiver Logic
GTO         Gate Turn-Off ( SCR )
GTO         Global Track Optimization ( technique )
GTR         Getriebe-Turbo-Radialschleifer
GTRI        Georgia Tech Research Institute ( Atlanta GA )
GTS         Global Tri-State
GUI         Graphical User Interface
GUID        Global Unique IDentifier
GUIDE       Graphical User Interface Development Environment
GWE         Global Write Enabled
GWM         Graphical Workspace Manager

H           Henry ( inductance, 1 H = 1 Wb / A )
H           High ( level )
H           Hydrogenium [ Wasserstoff ]
HAD         Hole Accumulating Diode
HAI         Hardware Accelerator Interface
HAL         Hardware-Abstraction Layer
HAL         Hot-Air Levelling
HALT        Highly-Accelerated Life Testing
HAP         High-Altitude Platform [ aeroplane, helicopter or airship operating in the stratosphere at an altitude of about 21km ]
HARM        High-Aspect-Ratio MEMS
HART        Highway Addressable Remote Transducer ( standard )
HASS        Highly-Accelerated Stress Screening
HATP        High-Availability Transaction Processing
HAZOPS      HAZard and OPerability Study
HB          Harmonic Balance ( simulation )
HBC         High Breaking Capacity ( fuse )
HBCI        Home Banking Computer Interface
HBM         Human Body Model ( ESD )
HBT         Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor [ SiGe and InGaAs/GaAs transistors ]
HC          High-speed CMOS
HCA         High Contrast Addressing ( LCD )
HCF         HART Communication Foundation
HCFC        HydroChloroFluoroCarbon
HCFT        Hot-Cathode Fluorescent Tube
HCI         Hot-Carrier Induced ( degradation )
HCMOS       High-Density Complimentary Metal Oxide Semiconductor
HCMOS       High-Speed Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor
HCPLD       High-Capacity Programmable Logic Device
HCR         High Contrast Reflection ( display )
HD          Harmonizing Document ( EN )
HD          High Density
HDCD        High Definition Compatible Digital
HD-CIF      High Definition Common Image Format ( 1080 by 1920 matrix HDTV )
HDD         Hard Disk Drive
HDE         Humanitarian Device Exemption
HDI         High-Density Interconnect
HDL         Hardware Description Language
HDLC        High-level Data Link Control
HDM         Hardware Device Module
HDMI        High-Definition Multimedia Interface
HD-PQFP     High-Density Plastic Quad Flatpack
HDSL        High-bit-rate Digital Subscriber Loop
HDSS        Holographic Data Storage System
HDT         Hard Disk Toolkit
HDTV        High-Definition TeleVision
HDVT        Hybrid Dual-Threshold-Voltage ( circuit )
He          Helium
HE          HöhenEinheit ( 44.45 mm, 19'' System )
HEAO        High Energy Astronomical Observatory
HEC         Header Error Control ( ATM )
HEE         Hyundai Electronics Europe ( Ltd. Halbreath Scotland UK )
HEI         High-Energy Implantation
HEL         Human Engineering Lab ( Boston MA )
HEMT        High Electron Mobility Transistor
HEOS        Highly Elliptic Orbit Satellite
HER         High-Efficiency Red ( LED )
HEV         Hybrid Electric Vehicle
HEX         Hexadecimal
HEXIS       Heat EXchange Integrated Stack ( fuel cells, Sulzer Innotek, Winterthur Switzerland )
Hf          Hafnium
HF          High Frequency ( HochFrequenz )
HFC         Hybrid Fiber/Coax ( technology )
HFC         HydroFluoroCarbon
HFET        Heterostructure Field-Effect Transistor
HFS         Hierarchical File System ( of Apple computers )
HFSS        High-Frequency Structure Simulator ( Agilent )
Hg          Quecksilber
HGED        High-Gain Emissive Display
HGÜ         HochspannungsGleichstromÜbertragung
HHI         Heinrich-Hertz-Institut ( Berlin Germany )
HHP         Hand-Held Programmer
HHP         HochleistungsHeizPatrone
HDVT        Hybrid Hierarchical Reduced-Swing Logic
HHT         Hand-Held Terminal
HIC         Heterogenous InterConnect
HID         Human Input Device
HID         Human Interface Device
HIL         Hardware-In-the-Loop ( simulation )
HIMA        Health Industry Manufacturers Association
HIP         Heiß-Isostatische Preßbehandlung
HIPPI       HIgh-Performance Parallel Interface
HKTDC       HongKong Trade Development Council
HLC         Hybrid Layer Capacitor
HLD         High Level Design
HLDA        High Level Design Automation
HLL         High Level Language
HLL         High Level Logic
HLR         Home Location Register ( GSM )
HLRS        HochLeistungsRechenzentrum Stuttgart ( Germany )
HM          Hard-Metric ( connector )
HMD         Head-Mounted Device
HMI         Hahn-Meitner-Institut [ Berliner Forschungszentrum ]
HMI         Human-Machine Interface
HMM         Hidden Markov Model
HMTI        Hana Microdisplay Technologies Inc. ( Twinsburg OH )
HNIL        High Noise Immunity Logic
Ho          Holmium
HOIE        Holographic Optical Interconnect Element
HOL         Head-Of-Line ( blocking, Ethernet )
HP          Hewlett-Packard ( Co. Cupertino CA )
HPA         High-Performance Addressing ( LCD )
HPC         Handheld Personal Computer
HPC         High-Performance Computing
HPCF        Hard Polymer Clad Fiber
HPFS        High-Performance File System ( OS/2 )
HPGL        Hewlett-Packard Graphics Language
HPO         High-Performance Option
HPS         High-Performance Schnecke ( Krauss-Maffei AG München Germany )
HPSC        High-Performance Scalable Computer
HRC         High Rupturing Capacity ( fuse )
HRMS        High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry
HRTF        Head-Related Transfer Function
HR-TFT      High Reflective Thin Film Transistor ( LCD )
HQ          High Quality
HSCSD       High-Speed Circuit-Switched Data ( GSM )
HSDPA       High Speed Downlink Packet Access
HSE         Health and Safety Executive
HSE         High Speed Ethernet
HSIO        High Speed Input/Output
HSIP        Hsinchu Science-based Industrial Park ( Taiwan )
HSL         Hue, Saturation, Luminescence ( color scheme )
HSM         Hierarchical Storage Management
HSP         Host Signal Processing
HSPA        High-Speed Packet Access
HSSDC       High-Speed Serial Data Connector
HSTR        High-Speed Token Ring
HSTL        High-Speed Transceiver Logic
HSUPA       High Speed Uplink Packet Access
HT          Horizontal Tabulator ( ASCII control code )
HTCC        High-Temperature Cofired Ceramic
HTH         Hope This Helps ( net slang )
HTML        HyperText Markup Language
HTTP        HyperText Transport/Transfer Protocol
HUD         Heads-Up Display
HUM         Hold-Up Module
HUT         Helsinki University of Technology ( Finland )
HV          High Voltage
HVAC        Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning
HVD         High-Voltage Differential
HVIC        High-Voltage Integrated Circuit
HVL         Hardware Verification Language
HW          HardWare
HW/SW       HardWare/SoftWare ( interface )
HWL         KolzWolleLeichtbauplatte
Hz          Hertz ( Frequenz, 1 Hz = 1 / s )

I           In-phase ( signal )
I²C         Inter-Integrated Circuit ( bus )
I²L         Integrated Injection Logic
I²O         Intelligent I/O ( architecture )
IA          Iowa
IAC         InterApplication Communication ( protocol )
IAF         Institut für Angewandte Festkörperphysik ( Fraunhofer IAF, Freiburg Germany )
IAF         International Astronautical Federation
IAFE        Integrated Analog Front End
IANA        Internet Assigned Numbers Authority ( )
IAO         Institut für Arbeitswitschaft und Organisation ( Fraunhofer IAO, Stuttgart Germany )
IAONA       Industrial Automation Open Networking Alliance
IAP         Institut für Angewandte Polymerforschung ( Fraunhofer IAP, Berlin Germany )
IAP         Internet-Access Provider
IAP         Intranet Application Platform
IAPP        Inter-Access Point Protocol
IARU        International Amateur Radio Union
IAT         Institut Arbeit und Technik ( Gelsenkirchen Germany )
IAT         Internet Appliance Toolkit
IBAN        International Bank Account Number
IBIS        Input output Buffer Information Specification
IBIS        Integriertes BordInformationsSystem
IBM         International Business Machines ( corporation )
IBP         International Buyer Program
IBR         Initialization Boot Record
IBTA        Infini-Band Trade Association
IC          Integrated Circuit [ self-contained, multiple-element circuit such as a monolithic or hybrid ]
ICAS        Intermittent Commercial and Amateur Service
ICASSP      International Conference on Acoustics, Speech & Signal Processing
ICC         Integrated Circuit Card
ICC         International Conference Center ( Berlin Germany )
ICC         International Conference on Communications
ICCAD       International Conference on Computer Aided Design
ICCD        International Conference on Computer Design
ICCE        International Conference on Consumer Electronics
ICDA        Integrated Circuit Design Automation
ICE         In-Circuit Emulator
ICE         Information, Communications and Entertainment
ICECS       International Conference on Electronics, Circuits and Systems
ICEP        Investimentos, Comércio e Turismo de Portugal
ICER        Industry Council for Electronics equipment Recycling
ICES        Interference-Causing Equipment Standard
ICF         International Cryptographic Framework
ICIP        International Conference on Image Processing
ICM         InComing Message
ICM         Inverted Coaxial Magnetron
ICMP        Internet Control Message Protocol
ICNN        International Conference on Neural Networks
ICP         In-Circuit Programmer
ICPADM      International Conference on Properties & Applications of Dielectric Materials
I&CPS       Industrial & Commercial Power Systems ( Technical Conference )
IC PTAB     Industry Council Project Technical Advisory Board
ICR         In-Circuit Reconfiguration
ICSC        International Conference on Satellite Communications
ICSP        In-Ciruit Serial Programming
ICSPAT      International Conference on Signal Processing Applications and Technology
ICT         In-Circuit Test
ICT         Information and Communication Technologies
ICU         Interrupt Control Unit
ICUPC       International Conference on Universal Personal Communications
ICX         Inter-Cartridge eXchange ( Oracle )
ID          Identification
IDAPI       Integrated Database Application Programming Interface
IDB         Integrated Debug Block
IDB         Inter-american Development Bank
IDC         Insulation Displacement Connector
IDC         InterDigitated Capacitor
IDC         Internet Database Connector
IDCT        Inverse Discrete Cosine Transform
IDE         Integrated Development Environment
IDE         Integrated Drive Electronics
IDEA        International Data Encryption Algorithm
IDEN        Integrated Dispatch-Enhanced Network
IDFT        Inverse Discrete Fourier Transform
IDIS        International Dismantling Information System
IDL         Interchip Digital Link
IDL         Interface Description Language
IDLH        Immediated Dangerous to Life and Health
IDO         Intelligent Design Optimization
IDS         Integrated Development System
IDT         Integrated Device Technology ( Inc. Santa Clara CA )
IDTV        Integrated Digital TV
IEB         Institute of Electronic Business ( Berlin, Germany )
IEC         International Electrotechnical Committee/Commission
IEDM        International Electron Devices Meeting
IEE         Institution of Electric Engineers ( UK )
IEEE        Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers ( San Jose CA )
IEEE/CAS    Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers/Circuits and Systems Safety
IEEE 1394   [ Firewire, serial bus ]
IEM         Intelligent Energy Manager
IES         Institute of Environmental Sciences ( Mount Prospect IL )
IETF        Internet Engineering Task Force
IF          Intermediate Frequency
IFA         Internationale FunkAusstellung ( Berlin, Germany )
IFAC        International Federation of Automation Control
IfAG        Institut für Angewandte Geodäsie
IFC         InterFace Clear ( GPIB )
IFD         Idea For Design ( Electronic Design, Hasbrouck Heights NJ )
IFDDI       Integrated Fiber Distributed Data Interface ( MC68840 )
IFF         Identify Friend or Foe ( system )
IFFT        Inverse Fast Fourier Transform
IFR         In-Frame Response
IFS         Inter Frame Spacing/Separation
IFS         International Freephone Service
IFSF        International Forecourt Standards Forum
IFT         Institut für FestkörperTechnologie ( Fraunhofer IFT München Germany )
IG          Icon Generator
IGARSS      International Geoscience And Remote Sensing Symposium
IGBT        Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor
IGEP        Indian-GErman Promotion ( project )
IGFET       Insulated Gate Field-Effect Transistor
IGMP        Internet Group Management Protocol
IGSF        Infinite-Gain Single-Feedback ( filter )
IHP         Institut für HalbleiterPhysik
IHV         Independent Hardware Vendor
IID         Interaural Intensity Difference
IIOP        Internet Interoperable ORB Protocol
IIOP        Internet InterOperability Protocol
IIP         Input-Intercept Point
IIP2        2nd(second)-order Input-Intercept Point
IIP3        3rd(third)-order Input-Intercept Point
IIR         Infinite Impulse Response ( filter )
IIS         Internet Information Server
IIS         Institut für Integrierte Schaltungen ( Fraunhofer IIS Erlangen Germany )
IISP        Information Infrastructure Standards Panel ( ANSI )
IL          Illinois
ILMC        Integrated Laser-Modulator Coupling
ILP         Instruction Level Parallelism
ILS         InstrumentenLandeSystem
ILT         Institut für Lasertechnik ( Aachen Germany )
IM          InterModulation
IM2         2nd(second)-order InterModulation
IMA         Inverse Multiplexing ATM
IMBE        Improved MultiBand Excited
IMC         Intermetallic Compound
IMC         Internet Mail Connector
IMD         In Mold Decoration
IMD         Insert-Mounted Device
IMD         InterModulation Distortion
IMF         Intermediate File Format
IMHO        In My Humble Opinion ( net slang )
IMI         International Microcircuits Inc. ( Milpitas CA )
IML         Institut für Materialfluss und Logistik ( Fraunhofer IML Dortmund Germany )
IMO         International Maritime Organization
IMod        Interferometric Modulator
IMPATT      Impact Avalanche and Transit Time ( diode )
IMQ         Instituto Italiano del Marchio di Qualita
IMS         Instruction Model Subsystem
IMS         Institut für Mikroelektronik Stuttgart ( Germany )
IMS         Insulated Metal Substrate
IMS         Ion Mobility Spectrometry
IMTC        International Multimedia Teleconferencing Consortium
IMTS        Improved Mobile Telephone Service
In          Indium
IN          Indiana
INCITS      InterNational Committee on Information Technology Standards
InGaN       Indium Gallium Nitride
INIRC       International Non-Ionizing Radiation Committee
INL         Integral NonLinearity
INMARSAT    INternational MARitime SATellite [ mobile communications consortium ]
INNS        International Neural Network Society ( Berkeley CA )
iNT         intelligent Network Terminal
INT         Integrated Network Terminator
INTELSAT    INternational TELecommunications SATellite [ mobile communications consortium ]
InterNIC    Internet Network Information Center ( )
I/O         Input/Output
IOCTL       Input/Output ConTroL [ command enables a program to communicate directly with a device driver ]
IOF         Institut für angewandte Optik und Feinmechanik [ Fraunhofer IOF Jena Germany ]
IOG         Inverter-Operations-Good ( signal )
IOM         ISDN Oriented Modular ( interface )
IOP         I/O Platform
IP          Intellectual Property
IP          Internet Protocol
IPAC        ISDN PC Adapter Circuit
IPA         Integrated Power Amplifier
IPA         IsoPropyl Alcohol
IPC         Integrated Passive Components
IPC         InterProcess Communication
IPCI        IndustrialPCI
IPCP        Internet Protocol Control Protocol [ Responsible for configuring, enabling, and disabling the IP protocol modules on both ends of the point-to-point (PPP) link ]
IPD         Insulating layer of Polycrystalline Dielectric
IPD         Integrated Passive Device
IPD         International Power Devices ( Inc. Boston MA )
IPI         Intelligent Peripheral Interface
IPI         International Payment Instruction
IPL         Ion-beam Projection Lithography
IPM         Intelligent Power Module
IPM         Intel Power Monitor
IPMA        In-Package Micro-Aligner ( MEMS )
IPMC        Industrial Process Measurement and Control
IPMI        Intelligent Peripheral Management Interface ( bus )
IPMS        Institut für Photonische MicroSysteme ( Fraunhofer IPMS Dresden Germany )
IPng        Internet Protocol next generation
IPO         Initial Public Offering
IPO         In-Place Optimization
IPPS        Integrated Power Protection System
IPS         In-Plane Switching ( technology TFT-LCD )
IPT         Integrated Power Transmission
IPT         Intelligent Positioning Tool
IR          InfraRed [ InfraRot, Spektralbereich elektromagnetischer Wellen mit Wellenlängen zwischen 770 nm und 1,0 mm ]
IR          Infrared Radiation
IR          Instruction Register
IR          Interational Rectifier ( Corp. El Segundo CA )
IRA         Individual Retirement Account
IRAM        Internal RAM ( µC )
IRC         Internet Relay Chat [ A protocol that enables two or more people, each in remote locations, who are connected to an IRC server to hold real-time conversations ]
IrDA        Infrared Data Association
IRF         Impulse Response Function
IRL         Internet Reconfigurable Logic
IrLAP       Infrared Link Access Protocol
IrLMP       Infrared Link Management Protocol
IRQ         Interrupt ReQuest
IRR         Ionising Radiations Regulations
IRS         Image Resampling Sequencer
IRS         Internal Revenue Service
IS          Interim Standard
IS          Intermediate System
IS          International Standard
IS          Intrinsic Safety
IS          Island, RER Rafmagnseftirlit rikisins ( Prüfzeichen )
ISA         Industry Standard Architecture
ISAC        ISDN Subscriber Access Controller
ISAM        Indexed Sequential Access Method
ISAPI       Internet Server Application Programming Interface
ISC         International Sourcing Center
ISCAS       International Symposium on Circuits And Systems
ISCE        Integrated Simulator Computational Environment ( aircraft computer architecture )
iSCM        internet Supply Chain Management ( Oracle Corp., Geneva, Switzerland )
ISD         Information Storage Devices ( Inc. San Jose CA )
ISD         Integrated System Design
ISDB        Integrated Services Digital Broadcasting
ISDN        Integrated Services Digital Network
ISDN-TA     Integrated Services Digital Network Terminal Adaptor
ISE         Institut für Solare Energiesysteme ( Fraunhofer ISE Freiburg Germany )
ISE         Integrated Simulation Environment
ISEE        International Sun-Earth Explorer
ISEE        International Symposium on Electronics and the Environment
ISHM        International Society for Hybrid Microelectronics
ISI         Input Scanning Interface
ISI         Integrated Systems Incorporated ( Sunnyvale CA )
ISI         InterSymbol Interference
ISIN        International Securities Identification Number
ISINM       International Symposium on Integrated Network Management
ISIS        International Satellite for Ionosphere Studies
ISM         Industrial, Scientific and Medical ( frequency bands )
ISM         Instruction Set Model
ISM         Intermediate Service Module
ISO         International Standards Organisation
ISOP        Instance Specific Operating Point
ISP         In-System Programmability/Programmable
ISP         Internet-Service Provider
ispGDX      in-system programmable Generic Digital Crosspoint ( switch )
ISPSS       In-Seat Power Supply System
ISR         In-System Reprogramming
ISR         Integrated Switching Regulator
ISR         Interrupt Service Routine
ISR         Isothermal Systems Research ( Colton WA )
ISS         Instruction Set Simulator
ISSCC       International Solid-State Circuits Conference
ISSLL       Integrated Services over Specific Link Layers
ISSM        International Symposium of Semiconductor Manufacturing
IST         Information Society Technologies
ISTN        Improved Super Twisted Nematic ( LCD )
ISV         Independent Software Vendor
ISW         In-System Write
IT          Information Technologies - InformationsTechnologie
IT          Internet Technology
ITA         Information Technology Agreement
ITA         Interchangeable Test Adapter
ITAA        Information Technology Association of America
ITAC        ISDN Terminal Adapter Circuit
ITC         International Test Conference
ITC         International Trade Committee
ITCL        International Technology Centre Leuven ( Belgium )
ITD         Input Transition Detection
ITD         Interaural Time Difference
ITE         Institute of Transportation Engineers
ITK         Informationstechnik und TeleKommunikation
ITMS        Information Technology Metric Strategies ( newsletter )
ITL         Information Technology Laboratory ( NIST )
ITO         Indium Tin Oxide ( touch screen )
ITO         Interface Transfer Object
ITRI        Industrial Technology Research Institute ( Taiwan )
ITRI        Interconnection Technology Research Institute
ITRON       Industrial TRON
ITS         Integrated Tiger Series ( program )
ITS         Intelligent Transportation System
ITSCG       Information Technology Strategies Cooperation Group
ITSEC       Information Technology Security Evaluation Criteria ( European standard )
ITSIG       Information Technology Strategies Implementation Group
ITU         International Telecommunications Union
ITV         Interactive TV
IUE         International Ultraviolet Explorer ( Forschungssatellit )
IuK         Informationstechnik und Telekommunikation
IVI         Interchangeable Virtual Instrument
IVP         Interactive Virtual Prototyping
IVR         Interactive Voice Response
IVR         Interrupt-Vector Register
IVS         Interactive Voice Response
IVS         International Vocabulary Support
IVT         Interrupt Vector Table
IWM         Integrated Woz Machine [ the custom chip that controls the Apple 3.5-inch disk drives ]
IWP         Inter-Working Profile ( DECT )
IWR         Isolated Word Recognition
IWS         Incident Wave Switching
IWS         Institut für Werkstoff- und Strahltechnik ( Fraunhofer IWS Dresden Germany )
IZM         Institut für Zuverlässigkeit und Mikrointegration ( Fraunhofer IZM Berlin Germany )
IX          Integration eXpert

J           Joule ( energy )
J2ME        Java 2 Micro Edition
JADE        Joint Audio Decoder-Encoder
JAF         Java Activation Framework
JAN         Joint Army-Navy
JAR         Java ARchive
JBOD        Just a Bunch of Disks
JDC         Japan Digital Cellular
JDCT        Japan Digital Cellular Telephone
JDK         Java Development Kit
JEDEC       Joint Electronic Devices Engineering Council
JEIDA       Japanese Electronics Industry Development Association
JESSI       Joint European Silicon Semiconductor Initiative
JET         Joint European Torus
JETEC       Joint Electronic Tube Engineering Council
JETL        Japan Electrical Testing Laboratory
JFC         Java Foundation Classes
JFET        Junction Field-Effect Transistor
JI          Junction Isolation
JISC        Japanese Industrial Standards Committee
JIT         Just-In-Time
JITO        Just-In-Time Oscillator ( FOX Electronics, Fort Myers FL )
JKFF        JK type Flip-Flop
JND         Just Noticeable Difference
JPEG        Joint Photographic Experts Group ( standard )
JPEG        Joint Picture Expert Group
JPHS        Japan Personal Handy System
JPL         Jet Propulsion Laboratory ( NASA, Caltech Pasadena CA )
JRMP        Java Remote Method Protocol
JTA         Jitter Timing Analysis
JTAG        Joint Test Action Group ( IEEE 1149.1 )
JTAPI       Java Telephony API
JTC         Joint Technical Committee
JTC1        Joint Technical Committee ( ISO/IEC )
JTFA        Joint Time-Frequency Analysis
JTS         Java Transaction Service
JVD         Jet Vapor Deposition
JVM         Java Virtual Machine
JWG         Joint Working Group

k           kilo ( 10^3 )
K           Kalium
K           Kelvin ( temperature )
KAIST       Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology ( Taeheon Korea )
KAKTUS      Kommunale Aachener KunststoffaufbereitungsTechnologie zur Umweltfreundlichen Sekundärrohstoffverwertung
KARMEN      KArlsruhe Rutherford Medium Energy Neutrino ( Experiment, )
KBM         Knowledge Base Memory ( Fuzzy )
kbps        kilobits per second
KDOT        Knowledge Driven Optimization Technology
KDP         Kalium Dihydrogen Phosphate ( crystal, laser optical element )
KDT         Kammer Der Technik [ Organisation der Wissenschaftler, Ingenieure und Ökonomen der DDR ]
KEMA        tot Keuring van Elektrotechnische MAterialien
KFZ         KraftFahrZeug
kg          kilogramm ( mass )
KGD         Known-Good Die
KI          Künstliche Intelligenz
km          kilometer ( length )
KMU         Kleine und Mittlere Unternehmen
KOM         KraftOMnibus
KOP         KOntaktPlan ( SPS )
Kr          Krypton
KS          Kansas
KSC         Kennedy Space Center
KSIA        Korean Semiconductor Industry Association
kV          kilovolt
kW          kilowatt ( electrical power )
KWK         Kraft-Wärme-Kopplung
KY          Kentucky

L           Low ( level )
L1          Level 1 ( primary, first-level )
L2          Level 2 ( secondary, second-level )
L²I         Lynx Linux Initiative
La          Lanthan
LA          Limiting Amplifier
LA          Louisiana
LAB         Logic-Array Block ( Altera )
LADL        Large-Amplitude Differential Logic
LAMBD       Laser Assisted Molecular Beam Disposition
LAN         Local Area Network
LANE        LAN-Emulation ( over ATM )
LAPD        Link-Access Procedure
LASER       Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation
LATA        Local Access and Transport Area
LBA         Logical Block Addressing
LBB         Logic Building Block
LBI         Local Bus Interface
LBNL        Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory ( Berkeley CA )
LCB         Lasered Circuit Board
LCC         Leadless Chip Carrier
LCC         Local Communication Controller ( IBM )
LCD         Liquid Crystal Display
LCI         Line-Conducted Interference
LCM         Local Connection Manager ( S.300 )
LCOS        Liquid Crystal On Silicon ( display )
LCP         Liquid Crystal Polymer ( resin )
LCR         Least Cost Routing ( ISDN )
LD          Low Density
LDAP        Lightweight Directory Access Protocol
LD-CELP     Low-Delay Code-Excited Linear Prediction ( compression method )
LDD         Lightly Doped Drain
LDI         Laser Direct Imaging
LDMOS       Lateral DMOS
LDMOS       Laterally Diffused Metal-Oxide Silicon
LDMOS       Laterally-Doped MOS
LDO         Low Drop-Out ( voltage regulator )
LDOR        Low Drop-Out voltage Regulator
LDR         Light Dependent Resistor
LDRC        Logic Design Rule Check
LDSC        Long Distance System Control
LDT         Local Descriptor Table
LEC         LAN Emulation Client
LEC         Line Echo Cancellation
LEC         Local Exchange Carrier
LED         Light Emitting Diode
LEF         Library Exchange Format
LEL         Lower Explosive Limit
LEM         Link Error Monitor ( network )
LENS        Laser-Engineered Net Shaping
LEO         Light Emitting Organic
LEO         Low Earth Orbit ( satellite )
LEP         Light Emitting Polymer
LETI        Laboratoire d'Electronique, de Technologie et d'Instrumentation
LF          Line Feed ( ASCII control code )
LF          Low Frequency
LFB         Linear Frame Buffer
LFCSP       Lead Frame Chip Scale Package
LFM         LFS File Manager
LFM         Linear Feet per Minute
LFOM        Linearity Figure of Merit [ OIP3 divided by DC bias power ]
LFS         Linear File Store
LFSR        Linear Feedback Shift Register
LG          Lucky Goldstar ( Semicon Seoul Korea )
LGA         Land Grid Array
LGAI        Laboratori General d'Assaigs i Investigacions ( Barcelona, España, )
Li          Lithium
LIA         Laser Institute of America
LIF         Laser-Induced Fluorescence
LIF         Low Insertion Force
LIFO        Last-In First-Out ( memory )
LIGBT       Lateral IGBT
LIMDOW      Light Intensity Modulation Direct OverWrite
LiMS        Lithium Metal Sulfide ( battery )
LIN         Local Interconnect Network
LISN        Line-Impedance Stabilization Network
LKW         LastKraftWagen
LLC         Logical Link Control ( network )
LLC         Link-Level Control ( interface )
LLC1        Logical Link Control class 1
LLL         Lawrence Livermore Laboratory ( Livermore CA )
LLME        Low Layer Management Entrity ( DECT supervisory layer )
LLNL        Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories ( Albuquerque NM, )
LLNL        Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory ( Livermore CA )
LLO         Local LockOut ( GPIB )
LLT         Logical-Link Table
LM-ATL      Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Lab ( Camden NJ )
LMDS        Local Microwave Distribution System
LMDS        Local Multipoint Distribution System ( network )
LMH         Linkable Module Header
LMS         Least-Mean-Square ( algorithm )
LNA         Low-Noise Amplifier
LNB         Low-Noise Block
LNC         Low-Noise Converter
LO          Local Oscillator
LOD         Level-Of-Detail
LOL         Laughing Out Loud ( net slang )
LOL         Loss Of Lock
LOL         Lots Of Luck ( net slang )
LOM         Laminated Object Manufacturing ( rapid prototyping process )
LON         Local Operating Network
LOP         Loss Of Power
LOS         Loss Of Signal
LP          Long Play [ Langspielplatte ]
LPAC        London Parallel Applications Centre ( UK )
LPB         Local Peripheral Bus
LPC         Linear Predictive Code
LPC         Low Pin Count ( interface )
LPCC        Leadless Plastic Chip Carrier ( package )
LPCM        Linear Pulse-Code Modulation
LPCVD       Liquid-Phase Chemical Vapor Deposition
LPCVD       Low-Pressure Chemical-Vapor Deposition
LPE         Layout-Parameter Extraction
LPF         Low-Pass Filter
LPGA        Laser-Programmed Gate Array
LPI         Low Probability of Interception
LPM         Library of Parameterized Modules
LPM         Low Profile Module
LPMOCVD     Low Pressure Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition
LPNP        Lateral PNP ( transistor )
LPRA        Low Power Radio Association
LQ          Letter Quality ( printer )
LRM         Language Reference Manual
LROS        Lloyd's Register Of Shipping
LRU         Line Replacement Unit
LS          Low-power Schottky ( logic )
LSA         Linear Systems Analysis
LSB         Least Significant Bit
LSB         Lower SideBand
LSD         Least Significant Digit
LSF         Low Smoke and Flame
LSI         Large-Scale Integration
LSL         Logic Shift Left ( assembler mnemonic )
LSR         Least-Squares Regression
LSR         Logic Shift Right ( assembler mnemonic )
LSS         Ladder Support Software
LSSD        Level-Sensitive Scan Design
LSSGR       LATA Switching Systems Generic Requirements
LSSM        Loss of Synchronization State Machine
LSTTL       Low-power Schottky Transistor-Transistor Logic
LT          Line Termination
LTC         Linear Technology Corporation ( Milpitas CA )
LTCC        Low-Temperature Co-fired Ceramic [ packaging and interconnect technology ]
LTE         Long-Term Evolution [ Wireless communications standard ]
LTP         Long-Term Prediction
LTPS        Low-Temperature Poly-Silicon ( display, Toshiba )
LTT         Linux Trace Toolkit
Lu          Lutetium
LUCO LED    LUminiscence-COnversion LED
LUF         Lowest Useful Frequency
LUN         Logical Unit Number ( SCSI )
LUNI        LANE User-to-Network Interface
LUT         LookUp Table
LVBD        Low-Voltage Battery Disconnect
LVBO        Low-Voltage Battery-Operated
LVC         Low-Voltage CMOS
LVCMOS      Low-Voltage CMOS
LVD         Low Voltage Devices ( EEC directive )
LVD         Low Voltage Differential
LVDS        Low Voltage Differential Signal
LVDT        Linear Variable Differential Transformer [ absolute displacement transducer converting a linear displacement from a mechanical reference into a proportional electrical signal ]
LVDT        Linear Variable Displacement Transformer
LVL         Low-Voltage Logic
LVPECL      Low-Voltage PECL
LVQ         Low-Voltage Quiet ( CMOS family )
LVR         Large Vocabulary Recognition
LVRT        Low Voltage Ride Through
LVS         Layout Versus Schematic
LVS         Logic Versus Schematic
LVT         Low-Voltage biCMOS Technology
LVTTL       Low-Voltage Transistor-Transistor Logic
LWL         LichtWellenLeiter
LZS         Lempel-Ziv-Stac ( compression algorithm )

m           meter ( length )
m           milli ( 10^-3 )
M           Mega ( 10^6 )
M²C         MultiMediaCard
M16QAM      Multilevel 16-symbol Quadrature Amplitude Modulation
MA          Massachusetts
MAC         Media/Medium Access Control ( layer )
MAC         Multiply-Accumulate ( unit )
MACH        Macro Array CMOS High-density ( AMD CPLD )
MACS        Monitoring And Control System
MACT        Maximum Achievable Control Technology
MADT        Micro Alloy Diffusion Technique ( transistor )
MAGIC       Multi-dimensional Applications Gigabit Internetworking Consortium
MAK         Maximale ArbeitsplatzKonzentration
MAN         Metropolitan Area Network
MAOP        Maximal Allowable Operating Pressure
MAP         Manifold-Absolute-Pressure ( sensor )
MAP         Manufacturing Automation Protocol
MAP         Maximum A Posteriori ( algorithm )
MAPI        Messaging Application Programming Interface
MARS        Mechanical Anti-Reflection Switch
MASER       Microwave Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation
MATE        Modular Automatic Test Equipment
MAU         Media Access Unit
MAU         Media Attachment Unit
MAUI        Multimedia Application User Interface
MAUS        Mobile AUtomated Scanning
MAX         Multimedia Acceleration eXtension
MAZ         MAgnetbildAufzeichnung
MAZeT       Mikroelektronik-AnwendungsZentrum Thüringen ( Jena Germany )
MBB         Moisture Barrier Bag
MBC         Multimedia Benchmark Committee
MBE         Molecular Beam Epitaxy
MBGA        Micro Ball Grid Array
MBI         Management-Buy-In
MBO         Management-Buy-Out
Mbone       Multicast backbone
MBR         Master Boot Record
MC          Magnetic Contactor
MC          MacroCell
MC1         MultiChassis ( MVIP bus )
MC2M        Motor Contactor 2 Motors
MCA         Micro-Channel Architecture ( IBM )
MCA         Multichannel Analyzer [ e.g. pulse height analyzer ]
MCA         Multi-Cycle Analyzer
MCAV        Modified Constant Angular Velocity
MCBF        Mean Cycles Before Failure
MCC         Microelectronics and Computer technology Center ( Austin TX )
MCC         Multi-Channel Concentrator
MCCT        MOS-Controlled Cascode Thyristor
MCD         Measurement, Calibration, and Diagnosis ( ASAM )
MCD         Memory Components Division
MCDC        Modified-Condition Decision Coverage ( analysis, quality-asurance software testing )
MCELP       Modified Code Excited Linear Prediction
MCFC        Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell
MCFP        Multi-Chip Floor Planner [ FPGA design tool ]
MCI         Media Control Interface
MCI         MultiCast Identifier
MCM         Multi-Chip Module
MCNS        Multimedia Cable Network Systems ( group )
MCNS/DOCSIS Multimedia Cable Networking Systems/Data-Over-Cable-Service Interface Specification
MCOB        Multiple-Chips-On-Board ( module )
MCP         Microsoft Certified Professional
MCP         Multi-Chip Package
MCR         Maximum Continuous Rated
MCSE        Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer
MCSP        Microsoft Certified Solution Provider
MCT         MOS-Controlled Thyristor
MCU         MicroController Unit
MD          Maryland
MD          Medium Density
MD          MiniDisk
MDA         Manufacturing Defects Analysis
MDA         Modulation-Domain Analyzer
MDA         Monochrome Display Architecture
MDAC        Multiplying Digital-to-Analog Converter
MDBS        Mobile Data Base Station
MDD         Multi-value Decision Diagram
MDE         Manufacturing Development Engineering
MDF         Main Distribution Frame
MDI         Management Data Interface
MDI         Media-Dependent Interface
MDI         Multiple Document Interface
MD-IS       Mobile Data Intermediate System
MDL         Microelectronics Development Laboratory ( Sandia's MDL )
MDLP        Mobile Data-Link Protocol
MDMA        Multi-Dimensional Multiple-Access [ time and frequency spreaded transmission scheme ]
MDMF        Multiple Data Message Format
MDMX        MIPS Digital Media eXtensions
MDO         Multi-Disciplinary Optimizer
MDP         MDSL Data Pump
MDRAM       Multibank DRAM
MDS         Microwave Design System ( HP )
MDSL        Moderate-speed Digital Subscriber Loop
MDSL        Multi-rate Digital Subscriber Loop
MDTN        MultiDomain Twisted-Nematic ( LCD )
ME          Measurement Expertise ( team )
ME          Mechanical Engineer
MEC         Message Exchange Control ( protocol IEEE488.2 )
MEDEA       MicroElectronics Development for European Applications
MEDL        MEssage Descriptor List ( TTP )
MEEI        Magyar Elektrotechnikai Ellenorzo Intezet
MEG         MagnetoEncephaloGraphy
MEI         Ministry of Electronics Industries ( China )
MEK         Methyl Ethyl Ketone
MELF        Metal Electrode Leadless Faced ( package )
MEM         MicroElectroMechanical ( technique )
MEMS        MicroElectroMechanical System
MEPEE       Modular Easy Programming and Execution Environment
MES         Manufacturing Execution System
M-ES        Mobile-End System
MESFET      Metal-Epitaxial Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor
MF          Merit Factor
MF          Multi-Functional
MFC         Microsoft Foundation Class ( library )
MFI         Motor Frequency Inverter
MFL         Merged Flash with Logic ( chip technology, Samsung Korea )
MFM         Modified Frequency Modulation
MFSK        Minimum Frequency Shift Keying ( modulation )
MFT         Micro-Fine-line Technology
MFT         MultiFunction Timer
Mg          Magnesium
MGC         Machinable Glass Ceramic
MGD         MOS-Gate Driver
MGSF        Motorola GreenLine Single FET
MHA         Magnetic Haptic Array
MHD         MagnetoHydroDynamisch ( Generator )
MHDC        Modular High-density Dc-dc Converter
MHS         Multimedia Home System
MI          Michigan
MIA         Media Interface Adapter
MIB         Management Information Base ( network )
MID         Molded Interconnect Device
MIDI        Musical Instrument Digital Interface
MIDP        Mobile Information Device Profile ( mobile phone )
MIF         Management Information Format
MIG         Metal-In-Gap ( head )
MIG         Microsystems Industrial Group
MII         Media Independent Interface
MII         Mobile-Information-Infrastructure ( project )
MIK         Maximale ImmisionsKonzentration
MIM         Metal-Insulator-Metal ( capacitor )
MIMD        Multiple Instruction Multiple Data ( architecture )
MIME        Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions
MIMO        Multiple-In Multiple-Out ( WLAN system )
MIN         Mobile Identification Number
MINI        Memory-Integrated Network Interface
MIPS        Meaningless Information Propagated by Salesmen
MIPS        Million Instructions Per Second
MIRS        Multimedia Information-Retrieval Services
MIS         Management Information Systems
MISFET      Metal-Insulator Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor
MISO        Master In Slave Out ( SPI signal )
MISR        Multiple-Input Signature Register
MIT         Massachusetts Institute of Technology ( Cambridge MA )
MITI        Ministry of International Trade and Industry ( Japan )
MIU         Memory Interface Unit
MKS         Meter, Kilogramm, Sekunde ( System )
MLC         MultiLayer Ceramic ( capacitor )
MLC         MultiLevel Cell ( technology )
MLCC        MultiLayer Chip Capacitor
MLI         Machine Language Interface
MLP         Meridian Lossless Packing ( compression scheme )
MLR         Multichannel Linear Recording ( tape )
MLS         Multi-Line Selection ( LCD )
MLV         MultiLayer Varistor
MM          Machine Model ( ESD )
MMA         Micro-Module Architecture
MMAC        Million Multiply-ACcumulate ( operations )
MMC         MultiMediaCard
MMCD        MultiMedia CD
MMD         Magnetic Matrix Display
MMDS        Microwave Multipoint Distribution System
MMDS        Multichannel Multipoint Distribution Service
MMI         Man Machine Interface
MMI         Manufacturing Management Information ( system )
MMI         Memory Mapped Interface
MMI         Messe München International
MMIC        Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit
MMJ         Modular Modified Jack
MMS         Manufacturing Message Specification ( ISO/IEC 9506 )
MMS         Mensch-Maschine-Schnittstelle
MMU         Memory Management Unit
MMVF        MultiMedia Video Format ( DVD proprietary scheme, NEC )
MMX         MultiMedia eXtension
Mn          Mangan
MN          Minnesota
MNCRS       Mobile Network Computer Reference Specification
MNOS        Metal-Nitride-Oxide Semiconductor
MNSFET      Metal Nitride Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor
Mo          Molybdaenum [ Molybdän ]
MO          Magneto-Optical ( technology )
MO          Missouri
MOC         Missing Output Code
MOCVD       Metal Oxide Chemical Vapor Deposition ( process )
MODACOM     MObile DAta COMmunication
MOEMS       Micro-Optical-Electromechanical System
MONET       Multiwavelength Optical NETworking
MOPA        Master Oscillator Power Amplifier ( laser system )
MOPS        Million Operations Per Second
MORI        Market and Opinion Research Institution
MOS         Metal-Oxide Semiconductor
MOSAR       Method Organised for a Systematic Analysis of Risks
MOSFET      Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor
MOSI        Master Out Slave In ( SPI signal )
MOSS        Market-Oriented Sector-Specific ( trade )
MOST        Media-Oriented System Transport
MOU         Memorandum Of Understanding ( EPA )
MOV         MehrschichtOberflächenVerdrahtung
MOV         Metal Oxide Varistor
MOVPE       Metal Organic Vapour Phase Epitaxy
MP          Metallized Paper
MPC         Model-Predictive Controller
MPC         Multi-Purpose Chip
MPD         MagnetoPlasmaDynamisch ( Generator )
MPEG        Motion Picture Expert Group
MPI         Max-Planck-Institut
MPI         Multiple Path Interference
MPI         Multiple Perspective Interactive ( video )
MPM         Metra-Potential-Methode [ Netzplantechnik ]
MPM         Multi Ported Memory
MP-MLQ      Multi Pulse Maximum Likelihood Quantization
MPOA        MultiProtocol Over ATM
MPP         Massively Parallel Processing
MPPP        Multilink Point-to-Point Protocol
MPQ         Max-Planck-institut für Quantenoptik ( Garching Germany )
MPR         Multi-Port Repeater
MPRG        Mobile and Portable Research Group ( Blacksburg VA )
MPSD        Modular Port Scan Device
MPSK        Minimum Phase Shift Keying ( modulation )
MPT         Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications ( United Kingdom )
MPW         Macintosh Programmer's Workshop [ Apple's software development environment for the Macintosh family ]
M-QAM       M-ary Quadrature Amplitude Modulation
MQFP        Metric Quad Flat-pack Package
MQW         Multiple Quantum Well ( Laser structure )
mR          milliRoentgen [ a one-thousandth of a Roentgen ]
MR          MagnetoResistive ( sensor )
MRA         Mutual Recognition Agreement
MRAC        Model Reference Adaptive Control
MRAM        Magnetoresistive Random-Access Memory
MRC         Motor Reverse Contactor
MRCC        Maritime Rescue Coordination Center
MRF         Magneto-Rheological Finishing
MRFM        Magnetic Resonance Force Microscope
MRI         Magnetic Resonance Imaging
MRO         Maintenance, Repair, & Overhaul
MROW        Multiple Readers, One Writer ( access policy )
MRP         Materials Resource Planning
MRS         Micro-Reflective Structure ( LCD )
MRSC        Motor Reverse Soft Contactor
MRX         MagnetoResistive Extended ( head )
MS          Master of Science
MS          Mississippi
MSB         Most Significant Bit
MSC         Main Switching Center
MSCS        MicroSoft Cluster Server
MSDL        MPEG-4 Systems Description Language
MSDS        Material Safety Data Sheets
MSE         Mean Square Error
MSG         MehrSchichtenGlas, MehrscheibenSicherheitsGlas
MSG         Message
MSI         Medium-Scale Integration
MSIE        MicroSoft Internet Explorer
MSK         Minimum Shift Keying
MSM         Mobile Station Modem
MSO         Mixed Signal Oscilloscope
MSOP        Micro Small Outline Package
MSP         Media Stream Processor
MSP         Mixed-Signal Processing
MSP         MultiSpektralFotografie
MSPS        MegaSamples Per Second
MSR         Message Service Routine
MSS         Multiprotocol Switched Services
MST         MikroSystemTechnik
MSTS        MicroSoft Terminal Server
MSWDI       Mixed-Signal Waveform Database Interface
MTA         MultiThreaded Architecture
MTBF        Mean Time Before Failure
MTBF        Mean Time Between Failures
MTBM        Mean Time Between Malfunctions
MTC         Master Timing Controller ( PXI )
MTC         Measurement Technology Conference
MTD         Manufacturing Test Division
MTD         Memory Technology Driver
MTF         Modulation Transfer Function
MTIE        Maximum Time Interval Error
MTL         Microsystems Technology Laboratories
MTN         Modulated Twisted Nematic ( LCD )
MTP         Multiple-Time Programming
MTPR        MultiTone Power Ratio
MTps        Million Transfers per second ( SCSI )
MTS         MPEG Transport Stream
MTTF        Mean Time To Failure
MTTFF       Mean Time To First Failure
MTTR        Mean Time To Repair
MTU         Maximum Transmission Unit ( IP )
MTV         Music TeleVision
MUSE        Multiple Subnyquist Encoding ( HDTV )
MUX         Multiplexer
MVI         Motion Video Instruction ( set DEC )
MVIP        Multi Vendor Integration Protocol ( bus )
MVP         Multimedia Video Processor
MYOB        Mind Your Own Business

n           nano ( 10^-9 )
N           Newton ( force, 1 N = 1 kg * m / s^2 )
N           Nitrogenium [ Stickstoff ]
Na          Natrium
NAB         National Association of Broadcasters
NACC        North American Calibration Cooperative
NACE        National Association of Corrosion Engineers
NACME       National Action Council for Minorities in Engineering
NADC        North American Digital Cellular
NADTP       National Association of DeskTop Publishers ( Topfield MI )
NAK         Negative AcKnowledgment ( ASCII control code )
NAMP        Nokia Artus Messaging Platform
NAMPS       Narrowband Analog Mobile Phone Service
NAP         Network Access Point
NARM        Natural occurring or Accelerator-produced Radioactive Material
NARTB       National Association of Radio and Television Broadcasters
NASA        National Aeronautics and Space Administration
NAT         Network Address Translator
NATA        National Association of Test Authorities
NATA        North American Telephone Association
NAV         Network Allocation Vector ( IEEE-802.11 )
NAVSTAR     NAVigation System using Timing And Ranging ( GPS system )
Nb          Niobium
NBFM        Narrow-Band Frequency Modulation
NC          Network Computer
NC          No Connection
NC          Normally Closed
NC          North Carolina
N/C         Normally Closed ( switch )
NCA         Network Computing Architecture ( Oracle )
NCAP        Network-Capable Application Processor
NCAR        National Center for Atmospheric Research
NCB-OFD     Narrow-Channel-Barrier OverFlow Drain
NCD         Nonlinear Control Design
NCE         Nomadic Computing Environment
NCEA        National Center for Environmental Assessment ( )
NCEG        Numerical C Extensions Group ( ANSI )
NCL         Null Convention Logic [ clockless, self-synchronizing semiconductor design technology ]
NCMS        National Center for Manufacturing Sciences ( Ann Arbor MI)
NCO         Numerically Controlled Oscillator
NCS         Native Compiled Software
NCSA        National Center for Supercomputing Applications ( University of Illinois, Champaign-Urbana IL )
NCTA        National Cable Television Association
NCU         Network Control Unit
Nd          Neodymium
NDA         NonDisclosure Agreement
NDAC        Not Data ACcepted ( GPIB )
NDF         No Defect Found ( syndrome )
NDIR        Non-Dispersive InfraRed ( gas and chemical sensor )
NDIS        Network Device Interface Specification ( Windows networking )
Nd-LSCO     Neodymium-substituted Lanthanum Strontium Copper Oxide
NDR         Negative Differential Resistance
Nd:YAG      Neodym:Yttrium Aluminum Garnet ( Laser optical element )
Ne          Neon
NEDA        National Electronic Distributors' Association
NEL         National Engineering Laboratory
NEMA        National Electrical Manufacturers Association
NEMI        National Electronics Manufacturing Initiative
NEMI        North american Electronics Manufacturing Initiative ( )
NEMKO       Norges Elektriske Materiellkontrol
NEMP        Nuclear ElectroMagnetic Pulse
NEP         Noise Equivalent Power [ RMS value of optical power which is required to produce unity RMS signal-to-noise ratio ]
NEREM       Northeast Electronics Research and Engineering Meeting
NESCOM      NEw Standards COMmittee ( IEEE )
NEXT        Near-End X(cross) Talk
NF          NiederFrequenz
NF          Noise Figure
NF          Norm Française
NFC         Near Field Communication
NFR         Near Field Recording ( disk drive )
NFS         Network File System
NGI         Next-Generation Internet
NGIO        Next-Generation Input/Output ( Intel )
NGL         Next-Generation Lithography
NGST        Next Generation Space Telescope ( )
NH          New Hampshire
NHD         Networking Hardware Division ( IBM )
NHRP        Next Hop Resolution Protocol
Ni          Nickel
NIC         Negative Impedance Converter
NIC         Network Interface Card/Controller
NICE        Narrative, Immersive, Constructivist/Collaborative Environment
NID         Special Network Identification
NIEHS       National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
NIH         Not Invented Here ( mentality )
NII         National Information Infrastructure ( band 5.2GHz )
NIM         Network Interface Module
NiMH        Nickel-Metal-Hydride ( cell )
NIST        National Institute of Standards and Technology ( Washington DC )
NiZn        Nickel-Zinc ( battery )
NJ          New Jersey
NJIT        New Jersey Institute of Technology ( Newark NJ )
NL          New Line ( ASCII control code )
NLA         Next Level Aggregator ( ID IPv6 )
NLC         Next Linear Collider [ international collaborative project on a high-energy, large-scale positron-electron collider ]
NLQ         Near Letter Quality ( printer )
NM          New Mexico
NMEA        National Marine Electronics Association
NMI         Non-Maskable Interrupt
NMOS        N-channel Metal-Oxide Semiconductor
NMR         Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ( spectrometry )
NMS         Network Management Station ( SNMP )
NMSI        Nonmultiplexed Serial Interface
NNI         Network Node Interface
NNI         Network-to-Network Interface
NNPU        Neural-Net Processing Unit
NNTP        Network News Transport Protocol
NO          Normally Open
N/O         Normally Open ( switch )
NoBL        No Bus Latency ( SRAM )
NOCT        Normal Operating Cell Temperature
NOP         No Operation
NORM        Natural Occurring Radioactive Material
NOS         Network Operating System
NOSC        Naval Ocean Surveillance Center
NP          Network Protocol
NPACI       National Partnership for Advanced Computational Infrastructure
NPC         Network Parameter Control
NPCS        Narrow-band Personal Communication Service
NPN         Negative-Positive-Negative ( doped bipolar transistor regions )
NPRM        Notice of Proposed Rule-Making ( FCC )
NPR         Noise Power Ratio
NPT         Non Punch Through ( IGBT )
NRE         NonRecurrent Engineering
NREL        National Renewable Energy Laboratory
NRFD        Not Ready For Data ( GPIB )
NRM         Normal-Response Mode
NRZ         Non-Return to Zero ( data encoding scheme )
NRZI        Non-Return to Zero Invert on ones ( data encoding scheme )
NSA         National Security Agency
NSB         National Science Board
NSCEP       National Service Center for Environmental Publications ( Cincinnati OH )
NSF         National Science Foundation
NSP         Native Signal Processing
NSP         Network Service Provider
NSREC       Nuclear & Space Radiation Effects Conference
NSSN        National Standards Systems Network
NT          Network Terminal
NT          Network Termination
NT1         Network Termination 1 ( OSI layer 1 only )
NT2         Network Termination 2 ( OSI layers 2 and 3 )
NTC         Negative Teperature Coefficient
NTDB        National Trade Data Bank
NTF         No Trouble Found ( syndrome )
NTFS        NT File System ( Windows NT )
NTL         Neue Tokaido-Linie [ Shinkansen, elektrisch betriebene, 2-gleisige Normalspur-Eisenbahnlinie zwischen Tokio und Fukuoka ]
NTONC       National Transparent Optical Network Consortium
NTP         Network Time Protocol
NTSB        National Transportation Safety Board
NTSC        National Television Standards Committee
NTSC        National Television System Committee
NTSC        Never Twice the Same Colour ( tech slang )
NTT         Nippon Telephone and Telegraph
NTV         Nonlinear Thickness Variation
NUL         NULl ( ASCII control code )
NUMA        NonUniform Memory Access ( architecture )
NVE         NonVolatile Electronics ( Inc. )
NVG         Night Vision Goggle
NVLAP       National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program ( NIST )
NVM         NonVolatile Memory
NVP         Nominal Velocity of Propagation
NVRAM       Non-Volatile RAM
NWK         Network ( analyser )
NY          New York
NYC         New York City
NYSEG       New York State Electric & Gas ( corporation )

O           Oxygenium [ Sauerstoff ]
OADM        Optical Add Drop Multiplexer
OAK         OEM Adaptation Kit
OAM         Operation, Administrative, and Maintenance ( ATM )
OAM         Operation And Maintenance
OAO         Orbiting Astronomical Observatory
OATS        Open-Area Test Site ( EMI )
OAV         OstAsiatischer Verein
OAW         Optical Assisted Winchester ( technology Seagate )
OBIGGS      On-Board Inert Gas-Generating System
OBP         On-Board Programming
OC          Open Collector
OC          OperationsCharakteristik [ Statistische Qualitätskontrolle ]
OCB         Optical Compensated Bend ( mode LCD )
OCDS        On-Chip Debug Support
OCP         Over Current Protection
OCR         Optical Character Reader/Recognition
OCXO        Oven-Controlled Crystal Oscillator
ODAA        Open Data Acquisition Association ( )
ODBC        Open DataBase Connectivity
ODBMS       Object DataBase Management System
ODETTE      [ Europäischer Automobilherstellerverband ]
ODMG        Object Data Management Group
ODP         Ocean Drilling Program
ODQL        Object Data Query Language
ODS         Open Data Service ( ASAM )
OE          Optical-to-Electrical ( converter )
OE          Output Enable ( signal )
OEC         Output Edge Control
OEIC        Opto-Electronic Integrated Circuit
OEL         Occupational Exposure Limit
OEM         Original Equipment Manufacturer
OFA         Optical Fiber Amplifier
OFC         Open-Fiber-Control ( protocol )
OFD         Oscillator Failure Detection
OFDM        Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing
OFDMA       Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiple Access
OFFM        Optimized Full Functional Model
OFO         Orbiting Frog Otholite [ Erdumkreisender Frosch-Otholit ]
OFTP        ODETTE File Transfer Protocol
OFW         OberFlächenWellen
OFX         Open Financial eXchange [ homebanking standard ]
OGM         OutGoing Message
OGO         Orbiting Geophysical Observatory
OH          Ohio
OHCI        Open Host Controller Interface
OHDL        OrCAD Hardware Description Language
OIDA        Optoelectronics Industry Development Association
OIP3        3rd(third)-order Output-Intercept Point
OJEC        Office Journal of the European Communities
OK          Oklahoma
OLAP        OnLine Analytical Processing
OLB         Outer Lead Bond
OLE         Object Linking and Embedding
OLED        Organic Light-Emitting Device
OLGA        Organic Land Grid Array
OLM         Optical Link Module
OMA         Object Management Architecture
OMAC        Open Manufacturing for Automobile Control
OMB         Office of Management and Budget
OMC         Operation Maintenance Center
OMF         Object Modules Format
OMG         Object Management Group
OMI         Open Modeling Interface
OMIMO       Open Microprocessor System Initiative Management Office
OMT         Object Modeling Technique
OnCE        On-Chip Emulator
ONO         Oxide-Nitride-Oxide ( dielectric )
ONU         Optical Network Unit
OO          Object Oriented
OOA         Object-Oriented Analysis ( methodology )
OOAD        Object-Oriented Analysis and Design ( tool )
OODBMS      Object-Oriented DataBase Management System
OOP         Object Oriented Programming
OOP         Out-Of-Print
OOP         Object-Oriented Programming Language
OPC         OLE for Process Control ( foundation )
OPC         Open Process Control
OPC         Optical Proximity Correction ( verification technology )
OPL         Organiser Programming Language
OPSEC       Open Platform for Secure Enterprise Connectivity ( alliance )
OPU         Optical Pickup Unit
OPV         OPerationsVerstärker
OQPSK       Offset Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying
OR          Oregon
ORB         Object Request Broker
ORCA        Optimized Reconfiguarble Cell Array ( Lucent Technologies, Allentown PA )
ORDBMS      Object-Relational DataBase Management System
OREM        Objective Reference Equivalent Meter
ORM         Optical Redundancy Manager
ORZ         Organisations- und RechenZentrum
Os          Osmium
OS          Operating System
OSA         Optical Society of America
OSAL        Operating System Abstraction Layer
OSC         Oscillator
OSD         On-Screen Display
OSEK        Offene Systeme ( und deren schnittstellen ) für die Elektronik im Kraftfahrzeug [ open systems and corresponding interfaces for automotive electronics ]
OSEM        Operating-System Extension Mechanism
OSF         Open Software Foundation
OSG         Oscillator Safe Guard
OSHA        Occupational, Safety and Health Administration
OSI         Open Switch Interval
OSI         Open System Interconnect ( model, ISO )
OSI         Open Systems Interconnection
OSM         Operating System Services Module
OSM         Optical Switch Module
OSO         Orbiting Solar Observatory
OSPF        Open Shortest Path First ( routing )
OSR         OverSampling Ratio ( ADC )
OSRA        Office Systems Research Association ( Springfield MI )
OSTRE       Objective SideTone Reference Equivalent
OTA         Office of Technological Assessment
OTA         Operational Transconductance Amplifier
OTASP       Over-The-Air Service Provisioning
OTDR        Optical Time Domain Reflectometer
OTIS        Optical Transpose Interconnection System
OTP         One-Time Programmable
OTP         Open Trading Protocol
OTPROM      One-Time Programmable Read-Only Memory
OTS         Orbital Test Satellite
OVI         Open Verilog International ( Los Gatos CA )
OVP         Over Voltage Protection
OXC         Optical Cross Connect
OZ          OktanZahl

ÖVE         Österreichischer Verband für Elektronik

p           pico [ 10^-12 ]
P           Peta [ 10^15 ]
P           Phosphor
P&R         Placement and Routing
P-MQFP      Plastic Metric Quad Flat Package
P-TQFP      Plastic Thin Quad Flat Package
PA          Pennsylvania
PA          PolyAmide
PA          Power Amplifier
PABX        Private Automated Branch eXchange
PACS        Personal-Access Communications System
PACT        Programmable Acquisition and Control Timer
PAE         Power-Added Efficiency
PAEK        PolyArylEtherKeton
PAF         PolyAgglomeration Fuse
PAFC        Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell
PAI         PolyAmidImide
PAL         Phase Alternation of Lines [ European color TV standard ]
PAL         Programmable Array Logic ( device )
PALC        Plasma-Addressed Liquid Crystal ( display )
PALCD       Plasma-Addressed Liquid Crystal Display
PAM         Phase/Amplitude Modulation
PAM         Power Amplifier Module
PAM         Pulse-Amplitude Modulation
PAMR        Public-Access Mobile Radio
PAN         Personal Area Network ( Laptop )
PAN         PolyAcrylNitril
PAP         Password Authentication Protocol
PAP         ProgrammAblaufPlan
PAR         PolyARylat
PAR         Project Authorization Request
PARD        Periodic And Random Deviation ( power supply )
PA-RISC     Precision Architecture - Reduced Instruction Set Computer ( HP )
PAT         Portable Appliance Tester
PAT         Prime à l'Aménagement du Territoire [ Raumordnungsprämie ]
Pb          Plumbum [ Blei ]
PB          Protective Basic
PBGA        Plastic Ball Grid Array
PBR         Partition Boot Record
PBS         Placement Based Synthesis
PBS         Portable Base Station ( ATM )
PBSRAM      Pipelined Burst Static RAM
PBT         PolyButylenTerephtalat
PBTP        PolyButylenTerePhtalat
PBX         Private Branch eXchange [ an automatic switchboard for handling large concentrations of telephones ]
PC          Personal Computer
PC          PolyCarbonat
PC          Program Counter
PCA         Printed-Circuit Assembly
PCA         Programmable Counter Array
PCB         PolyChlorinated Biphenyl [ Hazardous dielectric fluid formerly used in electrical equipment like oil-filled capacitors etc., can become the highly toxic dioxin when burned ]
PCB         Printed Circuit Board
PCDD        PolyChlorinated Dibenzo-para-Dioxin
PCDF        PolyChlorinated DibenzoFuran
PCF         Point Control Function
PCI         Peripheral Component Interconnect
PCI         Personal Communication Interface ( TIA )
PCI         Programmable Clock Interface
PCI         Protocol Control Information
PCIA        Personal Communications Industry Association
PCIS        Pinnacle Component Information Standard
PCISIG      PCI Special Interest Group
PCL         Printer Control Language
PCM         Pulse Code Modulation
PCMC        Precedence C Model Client
PCMCIA      Personal Computer Memory Card International Association
PCN         Personal Communications Network ( UK, 1.710-1.785 and 1.805-1.880 GHz )
PCN         Product Change Notification
PCO         Point of Control and Observation
PCP         Parallel Control Port
PCR         Peak Cell Rate ( ATM )
PCR         Polymerase Chain Reaction
PCS         Personal Communications System/Services
PCS         Physical Coding Sublayer
PCTFE       PolyChloride TriFluorEthylene
PCU         Program-Control Unit
PCWG        Personal Conferencing Working Group
PCX         PC Paintbrush [ format for graphic images, ZSoft Corporation, Marietta GA ]
Pd          Palladium
PD          Per Diem
PD          Plasma Display
P&D         Plug and Display ( VESA )
PDA         Personal Digital Assistant
PDB         Parasitics DataBase
PDB         Planar Doped Barrier
PDC         Personal Digital Cellular
PDC         Personal Digital Communication
PDC         Plant Data Collection
PDC         Primary Digital Carrier
PDEF        Physical Design Exchange Format
PDF         Portable Document Format
PDG         Polarization Dependent Gain
PDH         Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy
PDI         Personal Data Interchance
PDI         Perspective Dark-Field Imaging ( semiconductor wafer inspection )
PDIF        P-cad Data Interchange Format
PDIP        Plastic Dual In-line Package
PDK         Process Design Kit
PDL         Polarization Dependent Loss
PDL         Printer Description Language
PDLC        Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystal
PDM         Partition Descriptor Map
PDM         Product Data Management
PDM         PulsDauer-Modulation
PDMS        Plant Design Management System
PDO         Process Data Object ( CAN )
PDP         Plasma Display Panel
PDP         Programmable Data Path
PDP         Programmed Data Processor
PDR         Preliminary Design Review
PDS         Power Drive System
PDS         Processor-Direct Slot ( of Apple computers )
PDU         Protocol Data Unit ( network S.200 )
PDWG        Projection Display Working Group
PE          Parasitic Extraction
PE          PolyEthylene
PEBB        Power-Electronics Building Block
PEC         Peripheral Event Controller
PECC        Partially Error-Controlled Connections
PECL        Positive-biased Emitter-Coupled Logic
PECVD       Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition ( technique )
PED         Personal Electronic Device
PEDA        Passenger Electronic Device Association
PEDT        PolyEthylenDioxyThiopen
PEEC        Partial Element Equivalence Circuit
PEEK        PolyEther EtherKeton
PEEL        Programmable Electrically Erasable Logic ( ICT )
PEFC        Proton Exchange Fuel Cell
PEI         PolyEtherImid
PEK         PolyEtherKeton
PEM         Polymer-Elektrolyt-Membranzelle ( Brennstoffzelle )
PEM         Privacy Enhanced Mail ( internet )
PEO         Philips Electron Optics ( Eindhoven Netherlands )
PEP         Peak Envelope Power
PEP         Productivity Enhancement Products ( Laguna Hills CA )
pERC        portable Executive for Real-time Control
PERC        Portable Executive for Reliable Control
PERL        Pratical Extraction and Report Language
PEROM       Programmable Erasable Read-Only Memory
PERT        Program Evaluation and Review Technique [ Netzplantechnik ]
PES         Packetized Elementary Stream
PES         PolyEtherSulfone
PES         Programmer Electronic Signature
PESC        Power Electronics Specialist Conference
PESU        PolyEtherSUlfone
PET         PolyEthylene Terephtalate
PETP        PolyEthylene TerePhtalate
PF          Power Factor
PFA         Predictive Failure Analysis
PFC         PerFluoroCompound
PFC         Phase-Frequency Comparator
PFC         Power-Factor Correction
PFCB        PerFluoroCycloButene ( insulator )
PFD         Phase Frequency Detector
PFM         Pulse-Frequency Modulation
PFS         PowerFail Signal
PFU         Programmable Function Unit ( ORCA )
PGA         Pin Grid Array
PGA         Programmable-Gain Amplifier
PGIA        Programmable-Gain Instrumentation Amplifier
PGP         Pretty Good Privacy [ internet encryption algorithm ]
PHA         Preliminary Hazard Analysis
PHA         Pulse Height Analyzer [ device that gives a measure of the amplitude of a signal applied to its input ]
PHC         Packet Header Cache
PHD         Partial High Density
PHDL        Philips Hardware Description Language
pHEMT       pseudomorphic High Electron Mobility Transistor
PHF         Personal Hands-Free [ kits can reduce exposure to the electromagnetic radiation from mobile phones ]
PHP         Personal HandyPhone
PHS         Personal Handyphone System
PHY         PHYsical ( layer )
PI          PolyImide
PIA         Peripheral Interface Adapter
PIA         Primary Initialization Area
PIB         PolyIsoButylene
PIC         Peripheral Interface Controller ( GI )
PIC         Personal Intelligent Communicator
PIC         Positive Impedance Converter
PIC         Programmable Input/output Cell ( ORCA )
PIC         Programmable Interrupt Controller
PICA        Power Industry Computer Applications conference
PICMG       PCI Industrial Computer Manufacturers Group
PID         Personal Information Device
PID         Processor IDentifier
PID         Proportional, Integral, Derivative ( control )
PILOT       Programmed Inquiry, Learning, Or Teaching [ a high-level programming language designed for teachers and used to create computer-aided instruction (CAI) lessons ]
PIM         Personal Information Manager
PIM         Programmable Interconnect Matrix
PIM         Protocol-Independent Multicast
PIN         Personal Identification Number
PIN         Positive-Insulator-Negative ( doped diode regions )
PIND        Particle Impact Noise Detection
PIO         Programmed Input/Output
PIP         Picture In Picture
PIP         'P' Internet Protocol
PIP         Procedural Interface Protocol
PIPS        Power-page Internet Printing System
PIR         Passive InfraRed ( detector )
PIT         Periodic Interrupt Timer
PIT         Programmable Intelligent Tag
PITA        Pain In The Ass ( net slang )
PIV         Particle Image Velocimetry
PIV         Peak Inverse Voltage
PK          PolyKarbonat
PKG         PhonoKardioGramm
PKW         PersonenKraftWagen
PLA         Programmable Logic Array ( Signetics )
PLC         Power Line Carrier ( modem )
PLC         Power Line Communications ( technique )
PLC         Programmable Logic Cell
PLC         Programmable Logic Controller
PLCC        Plastic Leaded Chip Carrier
PLCP        Physical-Layer Convergence Procedure
PLD         Programmable Logic Device
PLDC        Polymer-Dispersed Liquid Crystal ( display )
PLEDM       Phase-state Low Electron hole-number Drive Memory
PLI         Programming Language Interface
PLL         Phase-Locked Loop
PLP         Physical-Layer Processor ( DECT )
PLS         Programmable Logic Sequencer
Pm          Promethium [ Weicher Betastrahler: 147/61 Pm  ]
PM          Performance Management ( ATM )
PM          Permanent Magnet ( motor )
PM          Phase Modulation
PM          Power Management
PMA         Physical Medium Attachement ( sublayer )
PMA         PreMarket Approval
PMC         PCI Mezzanine Card
PMD         Physical Medium-Dependent ( layer )
PMDC        Polarization Mode Dispersion Compensator
PMID        Portable MAC Identity for Display ( DECT )
PMMA        PolyMethyl MethAcryliate ( Plexiglas )
PMMS        Plant Maintenance Management System
PMMU        Paged Memory Management Unit [ the Motorola 68851, which allows an operating system to quickly reconfigure the arrangement of memory without physically moving data, so that different tasks can be "swapped" within the same space ]
PMOS        P-channel Metal-Oxide Semiconductor
PMP         Post-Metal Programming
PMR         Professional Mobile Radio
PMS         Pump Managing System
PMSM        PermanentMagneterregter SynchronMotor
PMT         Photo-Multiplier Tube
PMU         Parametric Measurement Unit
PN          PseudoNoise
PND         Personal Navigation Device
PNN         Probabilistic Neural Network
PNO         Profibus-NutzerOrganistaion
PnP         Plug and Play
PNP         Positive-Negative-Positive ( doped bipolar transistor regions )
PNSB        Position and Navigation Systems Business
PO          Point of Observation
POCSAG      Post Office Code Standardization Advisory Group
POD         Polyplanar Optic Display
POD         Power On Demand
POE         ProgrammOrganisationsEinheit ( SPS )
POF         Plastic Optical Fiber
POI         Parallel Optical Interconnect
POINT       Polymer Optical INterconnect Technology
POM         PolyOxyMethylen
PON         Passive Optical Network
POP         Picture Out of Picture
POP         Precision Optical Performance
POP3        Post Office Protocol 3
POR         Power-On Reset
POS         Point Of Sale
POSIR       Point Of Sales Internet Reporting
POSIX       Portable Operating System Interface for uniX
POST        Power-On Self Test
POTS        Plain Old Telephone Service
POWER       Performance Optimized With Enhanced RISC [ microprocessor architecture developed by IBM ]
POWER       Positive Opportunities for Women Engineer's Retention
PP          Parallel Processor
PP          PolyPropylene
PP          Portable Part ( DECT handset )
ppb         parts per billion
PPE         Personal Protective Equipment
PPE         Plastic Package Engineering
PPE         PolyPhenyleneEther
PPG         Period Pulse Generator
PPGA        Plastic Pin Grid Array
PPI         Programmable Peripheral Interface
ppm         parts per million
PPM         Pulse Position Modulation
PPP         Parallel Push-Pull ( amplifier )
PPP         Point-to-Point Protocol
PPP         Programmable Post Processor
PPR         Protocol Permutation and Randomizing
PPS         PolyPhenylenSulfid
PPTC        Polymeric Positive Teperature Coefficient ( device )
PPTP        Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol [ networking technology that supports multiprotocol virtual private networks ]
PPV         PolyPhenylene Vinylene ( LEP )
PQFP        Plastic Quad Flat Pack
PQR         Picture-Quality Rating
Pr          Praseodymium
PR          Puerto Rico
PRA         Programmable Resistor Array
PRB         Personal Request Broker
PRBS        PseudoRandom Bit Sequence
PRC         Pseudo-Random Code
PRCE        Prime Régionale à la Création d'Enterprises [ Regionale Beschäftigungsprämie ]
PRE         Prime Régionale à l'Emploi [ Regionale Beschäftigungsprämie ]
PRF         Pulse-Repetition Frequency
PRI         Primary Rate Interface
PRI         Pulse-Repetition Interval
PRISM       PhotoRefractive Information Storage Material
PRISM       Primary Rate Interface Signaling and Maintenance ( controller )
PRM         Pulse Rate Modulation
PRML        Partial-Response, Maximum-Likelihood ( data channel )
PRN         PseudoRandom Noise
PRNU        Pixel Response Non-Uniformity
PROM        Programmable Read-Only Memory
PRPG/PSA    Pseudo Random Pattern Generation/Parallel Signature Analysis
PRS         Pattern Recognition System
PRSI        Programmable Random Signal Interconnect
PRT         Platinum Resistance Thermometer
PRTD        Platinum Resistance Temperature Detector
PS          PolyStyrol
P&S         Publish and Subscribe
PSA         Parallel Signature Analysis
PSA         Pilot-Symbol Assistance
PSC         Permanent Split Capacitor ( motor )
PSC         Pittsburgh Supercomputer Center
PSD         Position Sensitive Device
PSD         Power Spectral Density
PSD         Programmable System Device ( WSI )
PSE         Personal Secure Environment
PSG         Phosphorous Silicate Glass ( process )
PSGA        Polymer Stud Grid Array
PSK         Phase-Shift Keying
PSM         Permanenterregte SynchronMaschine
PSM         Phase Shifting Mask
PSM         Power System Manager
PSM         Programmable State Machine
PSMC        Plastic Surface Mount Component
PSN         Packet Switched Network
PSNR        Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio
PSOP        Plastic Small Outline Package
PSP         Processor Support Package
PSPDN       Packet Switched Public Data Network
PSR         Programmable Switch Replacement ( ispGDX Lattice )
PSRAM       Pseudo-Static RAM
PSRR        Power-Supply Rejection Ratio
PSS         Power Supply Sensitivity
PSTN        Public Service Telephone Network
PSTN        Public Switched Telephone Network
PSU         PolySUlfon
Pt          Platin
PT          Payload Type ( ATM )
PT          Product Term
PT          Punch Through ( IGBT )
PTA         Post und Telekom Austria
PTAB        Project Technical Advisory Board
PTAT        Proportional-To-Absolute Temperature
PTB         Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt
PTC         Positive Teperature Coefficient
PTFE        PolyTetraFluoroEthylene
PTH         Plated-Through Hole
PTI         Payload Type Indicator ( ATM )
PTL         PropellerTurbinen-Luftstrahltriebwerk ( Turboprop ]
PTO         Patent and Trademark Office
PTO         PROFIBUS Trading Organization
PTR         Potential Transformer Ratio
PTSA        Product Term Sharing Array ( CPLD )
Pu          Plutonium
PUR         PolyURethane
PUT         Programmable Unijunction Transistor
PV          PhotoVoltaic ( system )
PV          Precision Video
PV          Present Value
PVA         Photovoltaic AC Relay
PVA         PolyVinyl Alcohol
PVAC        PolyVinylACetat
PVAL        PolyVinylAcetaL
PVC         Permanent Virtual Connection ( ATM )
PVC         PolyVinyl Chloride
PVD         Photovoltaic DC Relay
PVDF        PolyVinyliDene Fluoride
PVI         Planmässig Vorbeugende Instandhaltung
PWB         Printed-Wiring Board
PWM         Pulse Width Modulation/Modulator
PWR         PulsWechselRichter
pwr         power
PWS         Personal Web Server
PWT         Personal Wireless Telecommunications
PXI         PCI eXtensions for Instrumentation
PXROS       Portable eXtendible Realtime Operating System
PZT         Pb(lead)-Zircoate-Titanate ( dielectric compound )
PZT         Pb(lead)-Zirconium-Titanate ( film capacitor )

Q           Quadrature ( signal )
QA          Quality Assurance
QAM         Quadrature Amplitude Modulation
QANTAS      Queensland And Northern Territory Aerial Services ( Ltd., australian airline, )
QCCO        Quadrature Current-Controlled Oscillator
QCIF        Quarter Common Interface Format ( 176 by 144 pixels )
QCR         Quality Control/Reliability
QDOS        Quick and Dirty Operating System ( pre-MS-DOS )
QDR         Quad Data Rate ( SRAM )
QE          Quantum Efficiency
QEP         Quadrature Encoder Pulse ( interface )
QFP         Quad Flat Pack
QIC         Quarter-Inch Cartridge ( tape storage system )
QIPC        Quad Industrial Pack Carrier
QKZ         QualitätsKennZahl ( ISO9001 )
QLS         Quiet Line State ( network )
QMAC        Quad-port Multiplier ACcumulator
QML         Qualified Manufacturers List
QNL         Quantization Noise Leakage
QOS         Quality Of Service ( ATM )
QPL         Qualified Products List
QPM         Quasi-Phase-Matched
QPSK        Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying
QPSK        Quaternary Phase-Shift Keying
QQD         Quarter-Quadrature Decoding
QRSL        Quad Rambus Signalling Link ( multilevel signalling scheme )
QSI         Quality Semiconductor Incorporated ( Santa Clara CA )
QSOP        Quarter Quarter Size Outline Package
QSPI        Queued Serial Peripheral Interface
QSS         Quality Systems & Software
QTA         Quality Test Array
QTAG        Quality Test Action Group
QTP         Quick Turnaround Production
qty         quantity
QuEST       Quad Ethernet Switching Transceiver ( AMD Am79C989 )
QUICC       Quad Integrated Communications Controller ( MC68360 )
QXGA        Quad XGA ( display resolution 2048 by 1536 pixels )

R           Roentgen [ the quantity of x or gamma radiation such that the associated corpuscular emission per 1.293 milligramm of dry air produces, in air, ions carrying one electrostatic unit of quantity of electricity of either sign ]
Ra          Radium
RA          Radiocommunications Agency ( UK )
RA          Request Access
RABITS      Rolling-Assisted Biaxially Textured Substrat
RAC         Rambus Access Controller
RACKS       Reusable Application interface for Communicating real-time KernelS
RAD         Rapid Application Development
RADAR       RAdio Detecting And Ranging
RADSL       Rate-Adaptive DSL
RAID        Redundant Array of Independent Disks
RALU        Registered Arithmetic Logic Unit
RAM         Random Access Memory
RAMAC       Random Access Method of Accounting and Control [ IBM disk storage system 1956 ]
RAMDAC      Random-Access Memory Digital-to-Analog Converter
RAMS        Reliability And Maintainability Symposium
RAP         Robert A. Pease [ famous author of 'Electronic Design' magazine's column 'Pease Porridge' ]
RAPID       Reusable Application-specific Intellectual property Developers
RAS         Remote-Access Server
RAS         Row Address Strobe
RASSP       Rapid prototyping of Application-Specific Signal Processors ( project )
RAVE        Rendering Acceleration Virtual Engine
Rb          Rubidium
RBDS        Radio Broadcast Data System
RBSOA       Reverse Biased Safe Operating Area [ transistor parameters ]
RCCB        Residual Current Circuit Breaker
RBOC        Regional Bell Operating Company
RBT         Residual Block Termination
RBW         Resolution BandWidth
RCM         Regulatory Compliance Mark ( Australia/New Zealand )
RDA         Real-time Debug Agent
RDAC        Resistor Digital-to-Analog Converter
RDBMS       Relational DataBase Management System
RDF         Radio Direction Finding
RDFC        Resonant Discontinuous Forward Converter
RDI         Remote-Defect Indication ( ATM )
RDLL        Register-controlled Delay-Locked Loop
RDR         Remote Data Recovery ( service Ontrack )
RDRAM       Rambus DRAM
RDS         Radio Data System
RDS         Retinal Display System
RECAB       Radio Equipment Conformity Assessment Body
Re          Rhenium
RegTP       Regulierungsbehörde für Telekommunikation und Post [ ehemals BAPT ]
RELP        Residual-Excited Linear Prediction
REN         Remote ENable
REQ         Request
RETMA       Radio-Electronics-Television Manufacturers Association
RETRVIR     REmote TeleRobotic Vehicle for Intelligent Remediation
RF          Radio Frequency [ normally in the megahertz range ]
RFA         Resident Flash Array
RFC         Radio Frequency Choke
RFC         Request For Comments
RFDE        RF Design Environment ( Agilent/Cadence alliance product )
RFE         Return From Exception
RFI         Radio Frequency Interference [ special case of EMI wherein the induced signal falls into the RF spectrum ]
RFIC        Radio Frequency Intergrated Circuit
RFID        Radio-Frequency IDentification
RFP         Radio Fixed Part ( DECT )
RFP         Request For Proposal
RFPI        Radio Fixed Part Identity ( DECT )
RFT         Request For Technology ( process )
RFU         Radio Frequency Unit
RGB         Red Green Blue
Rh          Rhodium
RH          Relative Humidity
RHG         Recording Heads Group ( Seagate )
RI          Ring Indicator
RIAA        Recording Industry Association of America
RIE         Reactive-Ion Etching
RIM         Remote Interface Modul ( code )
RINA        Registro Italiano Navale
RIO         Redistributed Internet Object
RIP         Raster Image Processor
RIP         Requiescat In Pace
RIP         Routing Information Protocol [ Enables a router to exchange routing information with a neighboring router ]
RIS         Random Interleaved Sampling [ one method of ETS ]
RISC        Reduced Instruction Set Computing
RIX         Replicated Information eXchange
RIT         Rochester Institute of Technology
RKE         Remote Key Entry
RLE         Run-Length Encoding ( data compression )
RLL         Run-Length-Limited ( data encoding )
RLS         Recursive Least Squares ( algorithm )
RM          Resource Management ( ATM )
RMA         Radio Manufacturers Association
RMA         Rate Monotonic Analysis
RMG         Recording Media Group ( Seagate )
RMI         Remote Method Invocation
RMII        Reduced Media-Independent Interface
RMM         Read Mostly Memory
RMOA        Real-time Multimedia Over ATM
RMON        Remote Monitoring
RMS         Root Mean Square [ is derived from the square root of the average of the squares of the magnitudes ]
RMW         Read-Modify-Write ( cycle )
Rn          Radon
RNC         Radio Network Controller
RO          Relaxation Oscillation
ROD         Rewritable Optical Disk
ROI         Return On Investment
ROID        Relative Object IDentifier
ROM         Read Only Memory
ROOF        Real-time Object-Oriented Framework
ROOM        Real-time Object-Oriented Modeling ( method )
ROTFL       Rolling On The Floor Laughing
ROW         Rest Of the World [ includes all other geographies except Japan, North America, and Europe ]
RP          Rapid Prototyping
RPC         Radio-Packet Controller
RPC         Remote Procedure Call
RPCRT       Rear-Projection Cathode-Ray Tube
RPE         Reliable Processing Environment
RPE         Respiratory Protective Equipment
RPG         Report Program Generator
RPI         Remote Process Interface
RPM         Reliability Performance Measure
RPM         Remote Provisioning and Maintenance
RPM         Request Processing Module
rpm         revolutions per minute
RPO         Remote Power On
RRIO        Rail-to-Rail Input/Output ( amplifier )
RRO         Rail-to-Rail Output ( amplifier )
RS          Record Separator ( ASCII control code )
R&S         Rohde & Schwarz
RSA         Rivest, Shamir and Adelman ( key )
RSC         Recursive-Systematic-Convolutional ( encoder )
RSD         Redundant Signed-Digit ( principle )
RSI         Repetitive Strain Injury
RSSI        Received Signal Strength Indicator
RSM         Remote Switching Module
RSPF        Reduced Standard Parasitic Format
RSS         Root of the Sum of the Squares [ standard technique for summing uncorrelated noise sources ]
RST         ReSeT
RSVP        ReSerVation Protocol
RSX         Realistic Sound eXperience
RTA         Run-Time Analysis
RTAI        Real-Time Application Interface
RTAPI       Real-Time API
RTC         Real-Time Clock
RTC         Research and Technolgy Center
RTCA        Radio Technical Commission on Aeronautics
RTCM        Radio Technical Committe for Maritime applications
RTCP        Real-time Transfer Control Protocol ( Ethernet )
RTD         Resistance Temperature Detector/Device
RT/DSS      Real-Time/Decision-Support Service
RTDX        Real Time Data eXchange
RTEK        Real-Time Embedded Kernel
RTFM        Read The Fucking Manual ( net slang )
RTI         Real-Time Interface
RTK         Real-Time Kernel
RTL         Register Transfer Level ( VHDL )
RTL         Resistor-Transistor Logic
RTMA        Radio-Television Manufacturers Association
RTO         Return-To-One
RTOS        Real-Time Operating System
RTP         Real-time Transfer Protocol ( Ethernet )
RTS         Real-Time Sequencing
RTS         Request To Send
RTSA        Real-Time Spectrum Analyzer
RTSI        Real-Time System Integration ( bus )
RTT         Real-Time Trace
RTTE        Radio and Telecommunications Terminal Equipment
RTTY        RadioTeleType
RTU         Real Time Unit
RTX         Real-Time eXtensions
RTZ         Return-To-Zero ( data encoding scheme )
Ru          Ruthenium
RVD         Rapid Vapor-phase Doping
RVO         ReichsVesicherungsOrdnung
RWTÜV       Rheinisch-Westfälischer Technischer Überwachungs-Verein
RX_DV       Receive Data-Valid ( signal )
RX_ER       Receiver Error ( signal )

s           second ( time )
S           Schottky ( logic )
S           Siemens [ conductance, 1 S = 1 / Ohm = 1 A / V]
S           Sulfur [ Schwefel ]
S3          Sight, Sound, Speed
S/D         Signal/Distortion ( ratio )
S/H         Sample and Hold
S/N         Singnal-to-Noise ( ratio )
SA          Source Address
SAA         Standards Association of Australia
SAAF        Svensk AmatörAstronomisk Förening [ Swedish Amateur Astronomer's Society ]
SAB         Science Advisory Board ( EPA )
SAB         Self Activating Bell
SAC         Semi-Anechoic Chamber ( EMC )
SACCO       Serial Access Communication COntroller
SACD        Super Audio CD ( two-layer disc )
SACVD       Sub-Atmospheric Chemical Vapor Deposition ( process )
SADLL       Successive-Approximation DLL
SAE         Society of Automotive Engineers
SAFE        Secure Application Front End
SAIC        Science Applications International Corporation ( San Diego CA )
SALLY       Scanning Array Lens LitographY
SAM         Security Account Manager ( Windows NT )
SAM         Sensor Array Measurement
SAM         Sequential Access Method
SAN         Storage Area Network
SAN         System Area Network
SANDiE      Self-Assembled semiconductor Nanostructures for new Devices in photonics and Electronics
SANE        Standard Apple Numerics Environment
SANZ        Standards Association of New Zealand
SAPI        Service-Access-Point Identifier
SAPI        Speech Application Programming Interface
SAR         Search And Rescue
SAR         Segmentation And Reassembly ( ATM )
SAR         Specific Absorption Rate
SAR         Successive Approximation Register ( ADC )
SAR         Synthetic-Aperture Radar
SARAM       Sequential Access Random Access Memory
SAS         Single Attach Station ( network )
SAS         Subscriber Alerting Signal
SASI        Shugart Associates Systems Interface
SAT         Self-Aligned Transistor ( process )
SATER       Speech-Activated Telephony E-mail Reader
SATO        Self-Aligned Thick Oxide
SATRA       Shoe and Allied Trade Research Association
SAW         Surface Acoustic Wave
Sb          Stibium [ Antimon ]
SB          Safety Basic
SB          Sound Blaster
SBC         Single Board Computer
SBCCS       Single Byte Command Code Set
SBDS        Smart Battery Data Specification
SBF         Symmetric Block Formatting
SBGA        Super Ball Grid Array
SBIR        Small Business Innovative Research
SBLD        Silicon Based Logic Design
SBN         Smart Bus Node
SBP-2       Serial Bus Protocol 2
SBS         Silicon Bilateral Switch
SBS         Smart Battery System
SBT         Surface-Barrier Transistor
Sc          Scandium
SC          Short Circuit
SCA         Subsidiary Carrier Authorization
SCADA       Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition
SCAM        Sub-Carrier Amplitude Modulation
SCAM        SCSI Configured AutoMatically ( SCSI-3 )
SCAN        Switched Circuit Automatic Network
SCAP        Silent Compact Auxiliary Power
SCAT        Surface-Controlled Avalanche Transistor
SCB         SemiConductor Bridge
SCB         Signal Conditioning Board
SCB         Slot Control Block ( DECT )
SCC         Serial Communication Channel
SCC         Serial Communications Controller
SCC         Smart Card Connector
SCC         Source Code Control ( API )
SCC         Switched Capacitor Converter
SCCS        Source Code Control System
S-CDMA      Synchronous Code-Division Multiple Access
SCE         Single-Cotton Enamelled ( wire )
SCE         Source Code Engineering
SCF         Switched-Capacitor Filter
SCFM        Sub-Carrier Frequency Modulation
SCI         Serial Communications Interface
SCI         Supply Chain Integrator
SCI         System Control Interrupt
SCI/LVDS    Scalable-Coherent-Interface LVDS
SCIM        Standard Computer Interface Module
SCIOS       Scottish Collaborative Initiative in Optoelectronic Sciences
SCL         Simulation Control Language
SCM         Supply Chain Management
SCO         Santa Cruz Operation ( Unix )
SCODA       Scan Coherent Doppler Attachment
SCOPE       System Controllability Observability Partitioning Environment
SCORE       Satellite Computer-Operated Readiness Equipment
SCORE       Signal Communications by Orbiting Relay Equipment
SCP         Serial Control Port
SCP         Service Control Point
SCPI        Standard Commands for Programmable Instruments ( IEEE-488.2 )
SCR         Silicon-Controlled Rectifier
SCR         System Call Router ( S.100 S.300 )
SCS         Scalable Command Set
SCS         Signal Conditioning System
SCS         Silicon-Controlled Switch
SCSA        Signal Computing System Architecture ( standard )
SCSI        Small Computer Systems Interface
SCT         Signal Cable Terminator
SCV         Supply Chain Visibility
SCWT        Short Circuit Withstand Time
SCXI        Signal Conditioning eXtension for Instrumentation
SD          Secure Digital ( memory card )
SDAI        Standard Data Access Interface ( STEP )
SDC         Sigma-Delta Converter
SDE         Software Development Engine
SDE         Software Development Environment
SDF         Standard Delay Format
SDH         Synchronous Digital Hierarchy
SDI         Scan-Data Input
SDI         Serial Data In
SDI         Serial Digital Interface
SDJI        Submerged Double Jet Impingement ( method )
SDK         Software Developer's Kit
SDLA        Successive Detection Logarithmic Amplifier
SDLC        Synchronous Data Link Control
SDLVA       Successive Detection Logarithmic Video Amplifier
SDM         Shape Deposition Manufacturing
SDM         Space Division Multiplex
SDMA        Space Division Multiple Access
SDMF        Single Data Message Format
SDMI        Secure Digital Music Initiative
SDO         Scan-Data Output
SDO         Serial Data Out
SDO         Service Data Object ( CAN )
SDP         Software Data Protection
SDR         Software-Defined Radio
SDRAM       Synchronous DRAM
SDS         Smart Distributed Systems
SDS         Software Development Systems ( Oak Brook IL )
SDSC        San Diego Supercomputer Center
SDSL        Symmetric Digital Subscriber Loop
SDTV        Standard-Definition TeleVision
SDU         Service Data Unit ( network )
Se          Selen
SE          Single-Ended ( output )
SEAM        Scientific & Engineering Applications of the Macintosh ( symposium )
SEAM        Smart Enterprise Asset Management
SEB         Single Event Burnout
SEC         Single Edge Contact
SEC         Switched Ethernet Controller
SECAM       Systeme Electronique Couleur Avec Mémoire ( French video standard )
SECDEC      Single Error Correction Double Error Detection
SECOFI      Subsecretaria de Negociaciones Comerciales Internationales
SED         Surface-conduction Electron-emitter Display
SEE         Single Event Effect
SEGR        Single Event Gate Rupture
SEI         Software Engineering Institute
SEL         SELect
SELCAL      SELective CALling
SELV        Safety Extra Low Voltage
SEM         Scanning Electron Microscope
SEMA        Storage Equipment Manufacturers' Association
SEMI        Semiconductor Equipment and Materials International ( trade association )
SEMKO       Svenska Elektriska MaterielKOntrollanstalten
SEMM        Single Electron MOS Memory
SENT        Single Edge Nibble Transmission ( interface )
SEP         Single Entry Point
SEPIC       Single-Ended Primary Inductance Converter
SERDES      SERializer/DESerializer
SERT        Space Electric Rocket Test
SESAR       Switched Ethernet Segmentation And Reassembly
SET         Secure Electronics Transaction
SETI        Searching for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligences
SEV         Schweizerischer Elektrotechnischer Verein
SEV         SekundärElektronenVervielfacher
SFC         Sequential Function Chart
SFC         Shannon-Farro Coding ( data compression )
SFC         Switch Fabric Controller ( S.300 )
SFDR        Spurious-Free Dynamic Range = Störungsfreier Dynamikbereich
SFF         Small Form Factor ( package )
SFFPCI      Small Form-Factor Personal Computer Interface
SFP         Short-Fault Protection
SFQ         Single-Flux Quantum
SFR         Special Function Register
SG          Screen Grid
SGI         Silicon Graphics Inc.
SGML        Standard Generalized Markup Language
SGRAM       Synchronous Graphic RAM
SH          Sample and Hold
SH          Shield
SHA         Sample-and-Hold Amplifier
SHA         Super High Aperture ( technology LCD )
SHARC       Super Harvard ARchitecture Computer
SHF         Super High Frequency ( 3-30GHz )
Si          Silicium [ Silizium ]
SI          Serial Input
SI          Shift-In ( ASCII control code )
SI          Signal Integrity
SI          Système Internationale ( d'Unités ) [ Meter, Kilogramm, Sekunde, Ampere, Kelvin, Mol, Candela ]
SIA         Secondary Initialization Area
SIA         Semiconductor Industry Association ( Washington DC )
SIB         Serial Interface Bus
SiC         Silicone Carbide
SIC         Standard Industrial Classification ( numbering code )
SICAS       Semiconductor International CApacity Statistics
SICL        Standard Instrument Control Library ( Hewlett-Packard )
SID         Service ID
SID         Society for Information Display
SID         Sub-object IDentifier
SIFT        Signal Integrity Filtering Technology
SIG         Sistema Integrado de Gestão
SIG         Special Interest Group
SiGe        Silicon-Germanium ( semiconductor compound )
SII         Silicon Integration Initiative
SIM         Subscriber Identify Module ( GSM )
SIM         System-Identification Module
SIMD        Single-Instruction Multiple-Data ( architecture )
SIMM        Single In-Line Memory Module
SIMOT       SIMulation and Optimization Tool
SIMOX       Separation by IMplanted OXygen ( silicon-on-insulator process )
SINAD       SIgnal-to-Noise ratio And Distortion
SINALP      Sistema Nacional de Acreditamiento de Laboratories de Pruebas ( Mexico )
SIO         Serial Input/Output
SIP         Serial Interface Port
SIP         Simple Internet Protocol
SIP         Single In-line Package
SIPP        SIP Plus Protocol
SIRTF       Space InfraRed Telescope Facility ( University of Rochester )
SISD        Single Instruction Single Data ( mode )
SIU         System Interface Unit
SKR         System der KleinRechner
SKS         Single Kernel Simulation
SKS         Ständige Kommission für Standardisierung
SLA         Site Level Aggregator ( ID IPv6 )
SLAC        Stanford Linear Accelerated Center ( Menlo Park, CA )
SLAM        Scanning Laser Acoustic Microscope
SLB         Start-und-LandeBahn
SLD         Source Level Debugging
SLD         Subscriber Line Data ( interface )
SLDL        System Level Design Language
SLDRAM      SyncLink DRAM
SLI         System-Level Integration
SLIC        Subscriber-Line Interface Circuit
SLICOFI     Subscriber Line Interface COdec FIlter
SLIC        Supplemental Logic and Interconnect Cell ( ORCA )
SLIP        Serial-Line Internet Protocol
SLM         System-Level Macro
SLS         System Level Silicon
Sm          Samarium
SM          Siemens-Martin ( Stahl )
SM          Surface Mount ( technology )
SMA         Shared Memory Architecture
SMA         State Machine Analyzer
SMART       Selective Model Accuracy Refinement Technology
SMART       Self Monitoring Analysis and Reporting Technology
SMBA        Shared Memory Buffer Architecture
SMB/SOHO    Small or Medium Business/Small Office Home Office
SMBus       System Management Bus
SMC         Surface Mount Component
SMCC        Sun Microsystems Computer Corporation
SMD         Surface Mounted Device
SMEMA       Surface Mount Equipment Manufactures Association
SMG         Special Mobile Group ( ETSI Technical Committee )
SMI         System Management Interrupt
SMIF        Standard Mechanical InterFace
SMII        Serial Media-Independent Interface
SMM         System Management Mode
SMO         Stabilized Master Oscillator
SMP         Symmetrical MultiProcessing
SMPS        Switched-Mode Power Supply
SMPTE       Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineering/Engineers
SMS         Short Message Service ( GSM )
SMS         Synchronous Matrix Solver
SMSC        Short Message Service Center ( GSM )
SMSC        Standard MicroSystems Corporation ( Hauppauge NY )
SMT         Software-Managed Task
SMT         Surface Mount Technology
SMTP        Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
SMU         Source Measure Unit
SMZ         Soft-switched, Multi-resonant, Zero-current ( power controller )
Sn          Zinn
SNA         Scalar Network Analyzer
SNA         Systems Network Architecture ( IBM protocol )
SNAFU       Situation Normal - All Fucked Up
SNA/SDLC    Systems Network Architecture/Synchronous Data Link Control
SNDCP       Sub-Network-Dependent Convergence Protocol
SNDR        Signal-to-Noise and Distortion Ratio
SNE         Single-Nylon Enamelled ( wire )
SNEWS       SuperNova Early Warning System
SNHC        Synthetic Natural Hybrid Coding
SNI         Siemens Nixdorf Informationssysteme ( AG Paderborn Germany )
SNMP        Simple Network Management Protocol
SNO         Sudbury Neutrino Observatory ( )
SNR         Signal-to-Noise Ratio [ the ratio of the magnitude of the signal to that of the noise ]
SNT         SchaltNetzTeil
SO          Serial Output
SO          Shift-Out ( ASCII control code )
SO          Small Outline
SO-DIMM     Small Outline Dual-in-Line Memory Module
SOA         Safe Operating Area ( transistor parameters )
SOC         System On a Chip
SOD         Standard Outline Diode [ European outline code for standardized diode packages, i.e. SOD-27, SOT-91 etc. ]
SOF         Start Of Frame
SOFC        Solid Oxide Fuel Cell
SOG         Sea-Of-Gates ( architecture )
SOH         Start Of Header ( ASCII control code )
SOHO        Small Office/Home Office
SOI         Signal Of Interest
SOI         Silicon-On-Insulator ( process )
SOIC        Small-Outline Integrated Circuit
SOJ         Small Outline with J-Lead
SOLED       Stacked Organic Light-Emitting Diode ( UDC )
SONET       Synchronous Optical NETwork
SOP         Small Outline Package
SOPC        System On a Programmable Chip
SOS         Silicon-On-Sapphire ( process )
SOT         Small Outline Transistor
SOT         Standard Outline Transistor [ European outline code for standardized transistor packages, i.e. SOT-32, SOT-263 etc. ]
SOTA        State Of The Art ( Inc. )
SOVA        Soft-Output Viterbi Algorithm
SP          SPace ( ASCII character code )
SP          Stack Pointer
SPA         Software Performance Analyzer ( HP )
SPA         Software Publishers Association
SPA         System Performance Analysis ( tool )
SPARC       Scalable Processor ARChitecture
SPC         Statistical Process Control
SPCE        Signal Processing Communication Engine
SPCI        Small Peripheral Component Interconnect
SPCS        Stored Program Control Switching ( system )
SPD         Serial Presence Detect ( memory )
SPDT        Single-Pole Double-Throw ( switch )
SPEC        Standard Performance Evaluation Corporation
SPEF        Standard-Parasitic Extended Format
SPF         Standard-Parasitic Format
SPG         Sync Pulse Generator
SPG         Storage Products Group ( Seagate )
SPGA        Software Programmable Gain Amplifier ( ST )
SPGA        Staggered Pin Grid Array
SPGA        System Programmable Gate Array ( Actel )
SPI         Serial Peripheral Interface ( Motorola )
SPI         Service Provider Interface
SPICE       Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis
SPL         Series Processing Language
SPLD        Simple PLD
SPP         Standard Parallel Port
SPOC        Single-Point Orbit Calculator
SPOF        Single Point Of Failure
SPR         Special Purpose Register
SPS         SpeicherProgrammierbare Steuerung
SPS         Standard Positioning Service ( 1575.42 MHz GPS )
SPS         Standby Power Supply/System
SPST        Single-Pole Single-Throw ( switch )
SPXO        Simple Packaged Crystal Oscillator
SPW         Signal Processing WorkSystem
sq          square
SQC         Statistical Quality Control
SQK         Statistische QualitätsKontrolle
SQL         Structured Query Language
SQPSK       Staggered Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying
SQTP        Serialized Quick Turnaround Production
SQUID       Superconducting QUantum Interference Device
Sr          Strontium
SRAM        Static Random Access Memory
SRC         Segmentation and Reassembly Controller ( ATM )
SRC         Super Reflective Color ( LCD )
SRCS        Safety Related Control Systems
SRD         Short Range Device ( low power radio )
SRET        Satellite des Recherches et Etudes Technologiques
SRI         Stanford Research Institute
SRN         Service Request Node
SRO         Strontium-Rubidium-Oxide
SRQ         Service Request
SRS         Sound Retrieval System
SRS         Stanford Research Systems ( Sunnyvale CA )
SS7         Signaling System 7
SSA         Serial Storage Architecture
SSA         Super Self-Aligned ( SiGe process )
SSB         Single Side Band
SSC         Single-Silk Covered ( wire )
SSC         Software Systems Committee
SSC         Synchronous Serial Channel
SSCT        Surface-Stabilized Cholestric Texture ( mode LCD )
SSD         Solid State Disk
SSD         Storage Systems Division ( IBM )
SSDA        Serial Sequential Distributed Arithmetic ( technique )
SSE         Source Spontaneous Emission
SSET        Switching System Exchange Termination
SSFDC       Solid State Floppy Disk Card
SSFLCD      Surface-Stabilized FerroElectric Liquid Crystal Display
SSI         Small-Scale Integration
SSID        Simulcast System Identification
SSL         Secured Sockets Layer
SSM         Small Semiconductor Memory
SSMA        Spread Spectrum Multiple Access
SSOP        Shrink Small Outline Package
SSP         Synchronous Serial Port
SSR         Solid-State Relay
SSRAM       Synchronous SRAM
SST         Silicon Storage Technology ( Inc., Sunnyvale, CA )
SST         System Scanner Technology
SSTL        Stub Series Transistor Logic
SSTL        Series-Stub-Terminated Logic
SSTS        Solid-State Transfer Switch
SSTV        Slow-Scan TeleVision
ST          Strukturierter Text ( SPS )
STAR        Self-Test And Repair ( memory system )
STB         Set-Top Box ( TV )
STB         SPARC Technology Business ( Sun )
STB         Strobe
STC         Standard Test Conditions
STE         Symbolic Trajectory Evaluation
STED        STimulated Emission Depletion
STE         Symbolic Trajectory Evaluation
STEP        STandard for the Exchange of Product data ( ISO )
STF         Straight Through Flow
STI         Searching for Terrestrial Intelligences
STIM        Smart/Standard Transducer Interface Module
STL         Standard Library Template
STM-1       Synchronous Transport Module level 1
STN         Super Twisted Nematic ( LCD )
STOL        Short Take-Off and Landing [ Kurzstartflugzeug ]
STP         Shielded Twisted Pair
STP         Standard Temperature and Pressure
STS         Singapore Techonologies Semiconductors
STTL        Schottky Transistor-Transistor Logic
STX         Start of TeXt ( ASCII control code )
STZP        Steinbeis TransferZentrum Prozessautomatisierung ( Germany )
SUB         Substitute ( ASCII control code )
SUN         Stanford University Network
SUNY        State University of New York ( Stony Brook, )
SV          Set Value
SV          System Value
SVC         Switched Virtual Circuit
SVD         Simultaneous Voice and Data ( technology )
SVF         Serial Vector Format ( CPLD )
SVG         Silicon Valley Group ( San Jose CA )
SVGA        Super Video Graphics Array ( 800 by 600 pixels )
SVGB        Super Variable Grain Block ( FPGA )
S-VHS       Super VHS
SVID        System V Interface Definition [ AT&T's formal specification for compatibility with the UNIX operating system ]
SVM         Space Vector Modulation
SVN         Switched Virtual Networking
SVPC        Silicon Valley Personal Computer ( Design Conference )
SVS         Supply Voltage Supervisor
SW          SoftWare
S/W         Schwarz/Weiss
SWAC        Single Wide-Area Connection
SWAP        Shared Wireless Access Protocol
SWF         Sudden Wave Fade-out ( phenomenon )
SWG         Standard Wire Gauge
SWIFT       Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunications
SWIM        Super Woz Integrated Machine [ custom IC that controls the floppy disk interface of an Apple Macintosh computer ]
SWL         Short-Wave Listener
SWPWM       Sinusoidally Weighted Pulse-Width Modulation
SWR         Standing-Wave Ratio
SWS         Single White Silk ( wire )
SWTL        Surface-Wave Transmission Line
SWFV        SelbstWählFernVerkehr
SXGA        Super XGA ( 1280 by 1024 pixels )
SYEMON      Simple Yet Effective Methods Operate Nicely
SYN         SYNchronous idle ( ASCII control code )

T           Tera ( 10^12 )
T           Tesla ( Magnetische Flussdichte, 1 T = 1 Wb / m^2 )
T1          Telephony level 1 ( interface 1.5 Mbit/s )
Ta          Tantal
TA          Terminal Adapter
TAAAG       Type Approval Advisory Ad-hoc Group ( ISDN )
TAB         Tape-Automated Bonding
TAC         Total Area Coverage ( system )
TAD         Telephone-Answering Device
TADIC       Telemetry Analogue-to-Digital Information Converter
TAF         Technologically Advanced Family
TAFUBAR     Things Are Fouled Up Beyond All Recognition
TAM         Total Available Market
TAN         Technisch begründete ArbeitsNorm
TAN         The Audiophile Network ( )
TANSTAAFL   There Ain't No Such Thing As A Free Lunch ( net slang )
TAO         Telephony Application Objects ( SCSA )
TAP         Test Access Port ( JTAG )
TAPI        Telephony Applications Programming Interface ( Microsoft )
TARFU       Things Are Really Fouled Up
TAS         Telecom Analysis Systems ( Eatontown NJ )
TASI        Time Assignement Speech Interpolation
TAT         Turn-Around Time
Tb          Terbium
TBA         To Be Announced
TBC         Test Bus Controller ( JTAG )
TBGA        Tape Ball-Grid Array ( package )
TBR         Technical Basis for Regulation
TBR         Time Break Recall
TBTA        Triborough Bridge and Tunnel Authority
TBWP        Triple-Braid WeatherProof ( wire )
Tc          Technetium
TC          Temperature Coefficient
TC          Transmission Convergence ( sublayer )
TCAT        Test-Coverage-Analysis Tool ( Java )
TCC         Turbo Convolutional Code
TCDD        2,3,7,8-TetraChloroDibenzo-p-Dioxin
TCE         Thermal Coefficient of Expansion
TCF         Technical Construction File ( EMC )
TCG         Teleport Communications Group ( AT&T )
TCK         Test Clock Input ( JTAG )
TCL         Tool Command Language
TCM         Trellis-Coded Modulation
TCO         Total Cost of Ownership
TCP         Tape Carrier Package
TCP         Tool Center Point ( sensor )
TCP         Transmission Control Protocol
TCP/IP      Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
TCPR        Trellis-Coded Partial Response
TCR         Temperature Coefficient of Resistance
TCRT        Thin Cathode Ray Tube
TCSPC       Time-Correlated Single Photon Counting
TCVCXO      Temperature-Compensated Voltage-Controlled Crystal Oscillator
TCXO        Temperature-Compensated Crystal Oscillator
TDC         Tabular Data Control ( HTML )
TDC         Time-to-Digital Converter
TDD         Time-Division Duplexing
TDD         Timimg-Drive Design
TDEL        Thick-Dielectric ElectroLuminiscence
TDF         Technical Data Freeway ( Inc. Concord MA )
TDF         Technology Data Format ( TMA )
TDI         Test Data In ( JTAG )
TDL         Tunable Diode Laser
TDM         Time-Division Multiplex
TDMA        Time-Division Multiple-Access
TDMS        Transitional Minimized Differential Signaling
TDO         Test Data Out ( JTAG )
TDR         Tape Drive Register ( IBM PC-AT and PS/2 )
TDR         Time Domain Reflectometer
TDT         Time Domain Transmission
TDX         Time Domain Crosstalk
Te          Tellur
TE          Test Enable ( input )
TE1         Terminal Equipment 1 ( ISDN terminal )
TE2         Terminal Equipment 2 ( Non-ISDN terminal )
TEC         ThermoElectric Cooler ( Peltier )
TED         Transient-Enhanced Diffusion
TEDS        Transducer Electronic Data Sheet
TEF         Toxicity Equivalence Factors
TEFC        Totally Enclosed Fan Cooled
TEG         Technologie-EntwicklungsGruppe ( Fraunhofer TEG, Stuttgart, Germany )
TEI         Terminal Endpoint Identifier
TEK         Traffic Encryption Key
TEM         Transmission Electron Microscope
TEM         Transverse Electric and Magnetic ( mode )
TERMPWR     TERMinator PoWeR ( SCSI )
TETRA       Trans-European Trunked Radio ( standard )
TFC         Time Frequency Code
TFF         T type Flip-Flop
TFMS        Thin-Film Micro-Strip ( transmission line )
TFO         Tuning Fork Oscillator
T-FOLED     Transparent Flexible Organic Light-Emitting Diode ( UDC )
TFSOI       Thin-Film Silicon-On-Insulator ( process )
TFT         Thin Film Transistor ( LCD )
TFTP        Trivial File Transfer Protocol
TFTS        Terrestrial Flight-Telephone System
TGA         Technische GebäudeAusrüstung
TGL         Technische ( Normen ), Gütevorschriften und Lieferbedingungen [ DDR- und Fachbereichstandards ]
TGTP        Tuned-Grid Tuned-Plate ( circuit )
TH          Technische Hochscule
THD         Total Harmonic Distortion
THM         Total Harmonics Management ( concept )
Ti          Titanium
TI          Texas Instruments ( Inc. Dallas TX )
TIA         Telecommunications Industry Association
TIA         Time-Interval Analyzer
TIA         Totally Integrated Automation
TIA         TransImpedance Amplifier
TICL        Temperature-Induced Cable Loss
TIFF        Tagged Image File Format [ industry standard for bit-mapped graphic files ]
TIGA        Texas Instruments' Graphics Architecture
TII         Transducer-Independent Interface
TIM         Time Interval Meter
TIM         Traffic-Interface Manager
TIN         Technical Information Notice
TinyTP      Tiny Transport Protocoll ( IrDA )
TIPS        Theory of Inventive Problem Solving
TIPS        Trillion Instructions Per Second
TIR         Total Internal Reflection
TIRIS       Texas Instruments Registration and Identification System
TIROS       Television and InfraRed Observation Satellite
TKG         TeleKommunikationsGesetz
TKO         Technische KontrollOrganisation
TKZulV      TeleKommunikationsZulassungsVerordnung
Tl          Thallium
TL          Turbinen-Luftstrahltriebwerk [ Strahlturbine ]
TLA         Top Level Aggregator ( ID IPv6 )
TLA         True Logarithmic Amplifier
TLB         Translation Look-aside Buffer
TLC         Thin-Layer Chromatography
TLD         ThermoLuminescent Dosimeter [ crystalline material that emits light if it is heated after being exposed to radiation ]
TLI         Transport Layer Interface ( API, TCP/IP )
TLM         TAP Linking Module
TLS         Transport Layer Security ( protocol )
TLS         Tunable Laser Source
TLV         Threshold Limit Value
Tm          Thulium
TMA         Technology Modelling Associates ( Sunnyvale CA )
TMDS        Transition-Minimized Differential Signaling
TMF         Thin Metal Film ( batterie technology )
TMN         Telecom Management Network
TMS         Test Mode Select ( JTAG )
TMSL        Test and Measurement Systems Language ( HP )
TN          Tennessee
TN          Twisted Nematic ( LCD )
TNC         Threaded Neill Concelman ( connector )
TNT         TriNitroToluol
TO          Transistor Outline [ U.S. American code for JEDEC registered transistor packages, i.e. TO-3, TO-220 etc. ]
TOC         Table Of Contents
TOD         Time Of Delivery
TOF         Time of Filing
TOF         Timer OverFlow
TOF         Top Of Form ( printer )
TOP         Trade Opportunities Program
TOS         Tape-Operating System
TP          Transaction Processing
TP          Twisted Pair ( 10BASE-T )
TPC         Turbo Product Code
TPCU        Test Power Control Unit
TPE         ThermoPlastische Elastomere
TPE         Twisted Pair Ethernet
TPG         Test Pattern Generator
TP4         Transport Protocol class 4
TPI         Tracks Per Inch
TPM         Trusted Platform Module
TPU         Thermoplastisches PolyUrethan
TPU         Timer Processing Unit
TQFP        Thin Quad Flat Pack
TQM         Total Quality Management
TQN         Theoretical Quantization Noise
TR          Transmit/Receive ( Switch )
TRAC        Telecommunications Research and Action Center ( Washington DC )
TRAPATT     Trapped Plasma Avalanche Triggered Transit ( diode )
TRAU        Transcoder Rate Adaption Unit
TRF         Tuned Radio Frequency ( receiver )
TRG         Trigger ( IEEE488.2 )
TRIAC       TRIode AC ( switch )
TRK         Target Resident Kernel
TRON        The Real-time Operating system Nucleus
TRP         Total Radiated Power
TRST#       Test ReSeT input ( active low )
TS          Transistor Standard [ U.S. American code for JEDEC standard transistor packages ]
TS          Transparent Substrate ( LED )
TS          Transport Stream
TSA         Time Slot Assigner
TSAPI       Telephony Services Application Programming Interface ( Novell & AT&T )
TSB         Technical Systems Bulletin ( TIA )
TSB         Telecommunications Standards Board
TSC         Target System Controller
TSC         Technical Support Centre
TSI         Time Slot Interchange (switch )
TSLP        Thin Small Leadless Package
TSMC        Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company
TSO         Test Suit Operation ( DECT )
TSOP        Thin Small Outline Package
TSPC        True Single-Phase Clocked ( logic )
TSR         Temperature Sensing Resistor
TSR         Terminate-and-Stay-Resident ( program )
TSSOP       Thin Shrink Small Outline Package
TSU         Time Slot Unit
TTA         Time-Triggered Architecture ( Esprit Open Microprocessor Systems Initiative )
TTCN        Tree & Tabular Combined Notation [ ISO standard conformance test language ]
TTE         Telecommunications Terminal Equipment
TTFF        Time To First Fix ( GPS )
TTL         Through-The-Lens
TTL         Time-To-Live ( field, IP )
TTL         Transistor-Transistor Logic
TTP         Time-Triggered Protocol ( Esprit Open Microprocessor Systems Initiative )
TTP/C       Time-Triggered Protocol class C version [ Class C application is safety critical, without a mechanical back-up ]
TTS         Text To Speech ( software engine )
TTY         TeleTYpe
TU          Technische Universität
TUBA        TCP/UDP with Bigger Addresses ( protocol IPv9 )
TUCZ        Technische Universität Chemnitz-Zwickau ( Germany )
TUHH        Technische Universität Hamburg-Harburg ( Germany )
TV          TeleVision
TVL         TeleVision Lines
TVS         Transient Voltage Suppressor
TVSOP       Thin Very Small Outline Package
TWA         Time-Weighted Average
TWA         Travelling Wave Amplifier
TWD         TaiWan Dollar
TWT         Travelling-Wave Tube
TX          Texas
TX_ER       Transmit Error ( signal )
TÜ          Technische Überwachung
TÜV         Technischer Überwachungs-Verein

U           Uranium
UART        Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter
UAV         Unmanned Airborne Vehicle [ drone ]
UAWG        Universal ADSL Working Group
UBC         University of British Columbia ( Vancouver, Canada )
UBR         Unspecified Bit Rate ( ATM )
UBT         Universal Bus Transceiver
UCA2        Utility Communications Architecture version 2 ( IEEE standard )
UCAID       University Corporation for Advanced Internet Development
UCCE        University Consortium for Continuing Education
UCD         Upstream Channel Description
UCE         Union Carbide Electronics
UCLA        University of California, Los Angeles
UCSD        University of California, San Diego
UDC         Universal Display Corporation ( Bala Cynwyd PA )
UDCP        USSD Dialogue Control Protocol ( GSM )
UDF         User Definable Font
UDL         Uniformly Distributed Load
UDP         User Datagram Protocol [ A TCP complement that offers a connectionless datagram service that guarantees neither delivery nor correct sequencing of delivered packets (much like IP) ]
UDWDM       Ultra-Dense Wavelength-Division Multiplexing [ 1022 channels of 37 Mbits/s on a single fiber, 37 Gbits/s network demonstrated by researchers from Bell Labs ]
UEL         Upper Explosive Limit
UES         User Electronic Signature
UFO         Unidentified Flying Object
UFPT        Ultra Fine Pitch Technology
UFS         Ultra-Fast Switching
UHCI        Universal Host Controller Interface
UHD         Ultra-High Density
UHF         Ultra-High Frequency ( 300MHz-3GHz )
UHS         Ultra-High Speed
UHV         UltraHigh Vacuum
UHV/CVD     Ultra-High Vacuum Chemical Vapor Deposition
UI          Unit Interval ( SCSI )
UIC         Union Internationale des Chemins de fer [ Internationaler Verband der normalspurigen europäischen Eisenbahnen ]
UIF         USB Interface Firmware
UIFN        Universal International Freephone Number
UIO         Universal InterOperability
UIOC        Universal I/O Controller
UIS         Unclamped Inductive Switching
UJT         UniJunction Transistor
UL          Underwriters' Laboratories
UL          Unit Load
ULA         Uncommitted Logic Array
ULC         Underwriters' Laboratories of Canada
ULC         Universal Logic Circuit
ULI         Upper Level Interface ( ASAM )
ULP         Ultra Low Power
ULP         Upper Level Protocol
ULPM        Universal Linear Power Module
ULS         Unknown Line State
UMA         Unified Memory Architecture
UMB         Ultra Mobile Broadband
UMC         United Microelectronics Corporation ( Taiwan )
UML         Unified Modeling Language ( OO )
UML         Universal Modeling Language
UMS         Unified Messaging Server
UMTS        Universal Mobile Telecom Services
UMTS        Universal Mobile Telecommunication System
UNC         Unified Coarse ( thread )
UNC         Universal Naming Convention
UNC         University of North Carolina ( at Chapel Hill, )
UNESCO      United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization
UNF         Unified Fine ( thread )
UNH IOL     University of New Hampshire InterOperability Laboratory
UNI         User Network Interface
U-NII       Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure
UNM         University of New Mexico ( Albuquerque NM )
UNS         Unified Special ( thread )
UPC         Usage Parameter Control
UPROM       Unerasable Programmable Read-Only Memory
UPS         Uninterruptible Power Supply/System
UPS         United Parcel Service
UR          UltraRot ( = IR )
URAN        Universally Reconstructable Artificial Neural ( network )
URL         Universal Resource Locator
URS         Unifiziertes RegelungsSystem
US          Unit Separator ( ASCII control code )
USA         United States of America
USAC        United States Auto Club
USART       Universal Synchronous/Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter
USB         Universal Serial Bus
USB         Upper SideBand
USBPG       Universal Serial Bus Promoter Group
USCAR       United States Council for Automotive Research
USDA        United States Department of Agriculture
USDC        United States Display Consortium
USIC        User-Specific Integrated Circuit
USOC        Universal Service Ordering Codes
USPS        United States Postal Services
USSD        Unstructured Supplementary Service Data ( GSM )
USTR        United States Trade Representative
USV         Unterbrechungsfreie StromVersorgung
UT          Universal Time
UT          Utah
UTC         Universal Time Coordinated
UTE         Union Technique de l'Electricité
UTI         Universal Test Interface
UTI         Universal Transducer Interface
UTM         Ultra Thin Multilayer ( board )
UTOPIA      Universal Test and Operations Physical layer Interface to ATM
UTP         Unshielded Twisted Pair
UTQFP       Ultra Thin Quad Flat Pack
UTRA        Universal Terrestrial Radio Access
UTSLP       Ultra Thin Small Leadless Package
UUT         Unit Under Test
UV          UltraViolet [ Ultraviolett, Spektralbereich elektromagnetischer Wellen mit Wellenlängen zwischen 1,0 und 390 nm ]
UVLO        UnderVoltage LockOut
UWB         Ultra Wide Band
UXGA        Ultra XGA ( 1600 by 1200 pixels )

V           Vanadium
V           Volt ( voltage )
VA          Virginia
VA          Volt-Amperes
VABS        Vehicle ABStraction ( software module )
VAC         Vacuumschmelze ( GmbH Hanau Germany; Corporation Oklahoma City OK )
VAC         Volts Alternating Current
VAFC        VESA Advanced Feature Connector
VAFE        Voice Audio FrontEnd
VAM         Voltage Amplitude Modulation ( LCD )
VAN         Vehicle Area Network
VAR         Value-Added Reseller
VATM        Verband der Anbieter von Telekommunikations- und Mehrwertdiensten ( e.V. Köln Germany )
VATP        Vector Adaptive Transform Processing
VB          Vibrator
VBAFE       Voice-Band Analogue Front End
VBAP        Voice-Band Audio Processor
VBE/AF      VESA BIOS Extensions/Accelerator Functions
VBE/FP      VESA BIOS Extensions/Flat-Panel
VBI         Vertical Blanking Interval
VBM         Virtual Block Map
VBNS        Very-high Bandwidth Network Service
VBR         Variable Bit Rate ( ATM )
VC          Varnished-Cambric ( insulated wire )
VC          Vector Controlled ( drive )
VC          Venture Capital
VC          Virtual Channel
VC          Virtual Circuit ( ATM )
VC          Virtual Component
VCA         Voltage-Controlled Amplifier
VCB         Volume Control Block
VCC         Virtual Channel Connection ( LANE )
VCC         Virtual Component Codesign
VCC         Voice-Controlled Carrier
V-Chip      Violence Chip ( TV )
VCI         Virtual Channel Identifier ( ATM )
VCM         Verilog Model Compiler
VCM         Virtual Channel Memory
VCO         Voltage-Controlled Oscillator
VCP         Video Communications Processor
V-CPU       Virtual CPU
VCR         Video Cassette Recorder
VCR         Voltage-Controlled Resistor
VCS         Voice Control System
VCSDRAM     Virtual Channel Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory ( NEC )
VCSEL       Vertical Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser
VCX         Virtual Component eXchange
VCXO        Voltage-Controlled Crystal Oscillator
VDC         Venture Development Corporation ( Natick MA )
VDC         Volts Direct Current
VDE         Verband Deutscher Elektrotechniker
VDEW        Vereinigung Deutscher ElektrizitätsWerke
VDI         Verein Deutscher Ingenieure
VDI         Virtual Diagonal Interconnect ( scheme )
VdL         Verband der Leiterplattenindustrie
VDMA        Verband Deutscher Maschinen- und Anlagenbau
VDR         Voltage-Dependent Resistor
VDS         Voltage Detection System
VDSL        Very high-speed Digital Subscriber Loop
VDSL        Very high bitrate Digital Subscriber Line
VDSM        Very Deep SubMicron ( technology < 0.18µm )
VDX         Vehicle Distributed eXecutive
VEC         Virtual Embedded Circuitry
VEE         Visual Engineering Environment ( HP )
VELab       Virtual Environments Labor ( HLRS )
VES         Vision-Enhancing System
VES         VollElektrische Glasschmelze
VESA        Video Electronics Standards Association
VFA         Voltage Feedback Amplifier
VFD         Vacuum Fluorescent Display
VFD         Variable-Frequency Drive
VFI         Video Firmware Interface
VFO         Variable-Frequency Oscillator
VGA         Variable-Gain Amplifier
VGA         Video Graphics Array ( 640 by 480 pixels )
VGB         Variable-Grain Block ( FPGA )
VGC         Video-Graphics Controller
VHC         Very High-speed CMOS
VHDCI       Very-High-Density Cable Interconnect
VHDL        VHSIC Hardware-Description Language
VHDM        Very High Density Metric ( connector )
VHF         Very High Frequency ( 30-300MHz )
VHS         Vertical Helical Scan [ video recording standard ]
VHSIC       Very High-Speed Integrated Circuit
VI          VHDL International ( San Jose CA )
VI          Virtual Instrument ( LabVIEW )
VIA         Versatile Interface Adapter
VICS        Vehicle Information & Communication System
VID         Voltage Identification ( code )
VIP         Vertically Integrated PNP ( process )
VIP         Video Interface Palette
VIP         Video Interface Port
VIP         Visual Interactive Profiler
VIPP        Verified Interconnect Process Parameters
VIRGE       VIdeo and Rendering Graphics Engine ( S3 )
VIS         Visual Instruction Set ( SPARC )
VIS         Voltage Indicating System
VISA        Virtual Instruments Software Architecture
VISSR       Visible Infrared Spin-Scan Radiometer
VITA        VMEbus International Trade Association
VITAL       VHDL Initiative Towards ASIC Libraries
VITS        Vertical Interval Test Signal
VIUF        VHDL International User's Forum
VK          VergaserKraftstoff
VLA         Voltage Limiting Amplifier
VLC         Visual Logic Controller
VLED        Visible Light Emitting Diode
VLES        Variable Length Execution Set
VLF         Very Low Frequency ( waves, 3-30kHz )
VLIW        Very Long Instruction Word
VLSI        Very Large Scale Integration
VM          Virtual Machine
VME         Versatile Modular E-bus ( VERSAbus-E )
VMI         Video Module Interface
VMIC        VME Microsystems International Corporation ( Huntsville AL )
VMIP        VXIbus Modular Instrumentation Platform
VMM         Virtual MultiMeter
VMTP        Versatile Message Transaction Protocol
VNA         Vector Network Analyzer
V-NIC       antiViral Network Interface Card
VOA         Variable Optical Attenuator
VoATM       Voice over ATM
VOC         Volatile Organic Compound
VODAT       Voice-Operated Device for Automatic Transmission
VOE         Variable Optical Equalizer
VOFDM       Vector Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplex ( broadband fixed-wireless technology )
VoDSL       Voice over DSL
VoFR        Voice over Frame Relay
VoIP        Voice over Internet Protocol
VOL         VOlume Label
VoN         Voice over Networks
VOP         Video Object Plane ( MPEG-4 )
VP          Virtual Path ( ATM )
VPC         Virtual Product Console
VPC         Voice Processing Corporation ( Cambridge MA )
VPCI        Virtual Path Connection Identifier
VPE         Video-Processing Element
VPEC        Virginia Power Electronics Center ( Blacksburg VA )
VPI         Virtual Path Identifier ( ATM )
VPI         Visual Programming Interface
VPL         Visual Programming Language
VPM         Video Port Manager
VPM         Virtual Product Modelling
VPN         Virtual Private Network [ A remote LAN that can be accessed through the Internet by using PPTP ]
VPS         Vapor Phase Soldering
VPS         Video Playback System
VPW         Variable Pulse Width
VQFP        Very-thin Quad Flat Pack
VR          Virtual Reality
VR          Voltage Regulator ( tube )
VRM         Voltage Regulator Module
VRML        Virtual Reality Modeling Language
VROOMM      Virtual Runtime Object-Oriented Memory Manager
VRP         Voice Recognition Processor ( OKI )
VSAT        Very Small Aperture ( satellite ) Transceiver/Terminal
VSC         Voltage-Supply Converter
VSD         Variable-Speed Drive
VSELP       Vector-Sum-Excited Linear Prediction
VSI         Verband der SoftwareIndustrie ( Deutschlands, Germany )
VSI         Virtual Socket Interface
VSIA        Virtual Socket Interface Alliance ( San Jose CA )
VSO         VITA Standards Organization
VSOP        Very-Small Outline Package
VSP         Virtual Single Processor ( model )
VSP         Virtual Software Processor
VSP/TAP     Virtual Software Processor/Target Access Probe
VSQ         VergleichsStrahlungsQuelle ( EMV )
VSSI        Very Small Scale Integration
VSWR        Voltage Standing Wave Ratio
VT          Vacuum Tube
VT          Vertical Tabulator ( ASCII control code )
VTC         Vehicular Technology Conference
VTL         VISA Transition Library
VTP         Virtual Terminal Protocol [ Telnet, a terminal emulation protocol for logging on to remote computers ]
VTOA        Voice and Telephony Over ATM
VTOA        Voice Traffic Over ATM
VTOL        Vertical Take-Off and Landing [ Senkrechtstartflugzeug ]
VTVM        Vacuum Tube VoltMeter
VU          Volume Unit ( indicator )
VUD         Verband der Unterhaltungssoftware Deutschland ( Germany )
VUMA        VESA Unified Memory Architecture
VVA         Voltage-Variable Attenuator
VVC         Voltage-Variable Capacitance
VVM         Variable Voltage Material
VXC         Voice eXchange Card
VXI         VME eXtensions for Instrumentation

W           Watt [ electrical power, 1 W = 1 J / s ]
W           Wolfram
W3C         World Wide Web Consortium
WA          Washington
WAAS        Wide-Area Augmentation System [ GPS data correction service ]
WAE         Wireless Application Environment
WAIS        Wide-Area Information Server [ A network publishing system designed to help users find information over a computer network ]
WAN         Wide Area Network [ A communications network that connects geographically separated areas ]
WAO         Wissenschaftliche ArbeitsOrganisation
WAP         Wireless Application Protocol
WARP        Weight Associative Rule Processor
WATS        Wide-Area Telephone Service
Wb          Weber [ Magnetischer Fluss, 1 Wb = 1 V * s ]
WBEM        Web-Based Enterprise Management
WBTBGA      Wire Bond Tape Ball Grid Array
WCD         Wireless Communications Division
W-CDMA      Wideband Code-Division Multiple-Access
WCMP        Wireless Control Message Protocol
WCPE        Wireless Customer-Premise Equipment
WCS         Writable Control Store
WD          Western Digital
WDF         Wave Digital Filter
WDM         Wavelength-Division Multiplexing ( network )
WDM         Windows Driver Model
WDP         Wireless Datagram Protocol
WDT         Watchdog Timer
WDX         Wave-length Dispersive X-ray
WECC        Western European Calibration Cooperation
WEEE        Waste in Electronics and Electrical Equipment ( directive for leadless manufacturing processes )
WEP         Wired Equivalent Privacy
WFC         Windows Foundation Classes ( Java )
WFM         Wired For Management ( Intel initiative )
WGMA        Wissenschaftlich-technische Gesellschaft für Mess- und Automatisierungstechnik
WHO         World Health Organisation
WHQL        Windows Hardware Quality Lab
WI          Wisconsin
WIG         Wolfram-InertGas ( Schweissen ) [ Schmelzschweissverfahren mit nicht abschmelzender Wolframelektrode in einer inerten Schutzgasatmosphäre ]
WIG         Workgroup Internet Gateway
WILCO       WILl COmply
WiMAX       Worldwide interoperability for Microwave Access
WINHEC      WINdows Hardware Engineering Conference
WINLAB      Wireless Information Networking LABoratory ( New Brunswick NJ )
WIP         Work In Progress
WITS        Workshop on Internet Technology & Systems
WiUSB       Wireless USB
WLAN        Wireless Local Area Network
WLCSP       Wafer Level Chip Scale Package
WLL         Wireless Local Loop
WML         Wireless Markup Language
W-OFDM      Wideband Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing
WORA        Write Once, Run Anywhere ( architecture )
WORM        Write Once, Ready Many times
WPAN        Wireless Personal Area Network
WPB         Write-Per-Bit ( function )
WRAM        Window RAM
WRB         Web Request Broker
WRS         Wind River Systems
WSC         Winter Simulation Conference
WSG         Wait-State Generator
WSI         WaferScale Integration ( Inc. Fremont CA )
WSM         Write State Machine
WSP         Wireless Session Protocol
WSPW        WaferStarts Per Week
WSS         Windows Sound System
WSTS        World Semiconductor Trade Statistics
WTA         Wireless Telephony Application
WTLS        Wireless Transport Layer Security
WTO         World Trade Organization
WTP         Wireless Transaction/Transfer Protocol
WUXGA       Wide Ultra XGA ( 1900 by 1200 pixels )
WV          Working Voltage
WVLAN       Wireless Virtual LAN
WWW         World Wide Web
WYSIWYG     What You See Is What You Get
WZB         WissenschaftsZentrum für Sozialforschung ( Berlin Germany )

XBIU        eXternal Bus-Interface Unit
XCVR        Transceiver
XDR         eXternal Data Representation
Xe          Xenon
XGA         eXtended Graphics Adaptor ( 1024 by 768 pixels )
XIP         eXecute In Place
Xmit        transmit
XML         eXtensible Markup Language
XNF         Xilinx Netlist Format
XO          Crystal Oscillator
XOR         eXclusive-Or
XPDS        Xerox Professional Document Services
XPLA        eXtended Programmable Logic Array ( Philips )
XRAM        eXtended RAM ( µC )
XSVF        Xilinx Serial Vector Format
Xtal        crystal

Y           Yttrium
Y2K         Year 2000
YACC        Yet Another Compiler Compiler
YAFIYGI     You Asked For It, You Got It
YAG         Yttrium-Aluminum-Garnet ( crystal )
YAG:Nd      Yttrium Aluminum Garnet:Neodym ( LASER )
Yb          Ytterbium
YBCO        Yttrium, Barium, Copper, and Oxygen ( superconducting compound )
Y/C         Y(luminance)-Chrominance ( signal )
YGaIG       Yttrium Gallium Iron Garnet
YIG         Yttrium Iron Garnet
YUV         (Y)luminance and (U,V)chrominance ( color space standard )

ZAB         Zweistufiger hydromechanischer AuswerferBeschleuniger
ZBBS        Zilog Bulletin Board Service
ZBT         Zero Bus Turnaround ( memory )
ZCAV        Zone Constant Angular Velocity
ZEBRA       Zero Energy Breeder Reactor Assembly
ZIA         Zero-power Interconnect Array
ZIF         Zero Insertion Force
ZIF         Zero Intermediate Frequency [ receiver = direct-conversion receiver ]
ZIP         Zigzag-In-line Package
ZIP         Zone Improvement Plan ( code )
ZMD         Zentrum Mikroelektronik Dresden ( GmbH Dresden Germany )
Zn          Zink
ZnO         Zinc Oxide
Zr          Zirkonium
ZTA         Zirconia Toughened Alumina ( ceramic )
ZTAT        Zero Turn Around Time
ZTK         ZwischenkreisTrennKlemme
ZTL         ZweistromTurbinen-Luftstrahltriebwerk
ZTU         Zeit-Temperatur-Umwandlungsschaubild
ZV          ZentralVerriegelung
ZV          Zoom Video ( interface )
ZVEI        ZentralVerband Elektrotechnik- und ElektronikIndustrie ( Germany )
ZVS         Zero Voltage Switching
ZVS HB      Zero Voltage Switched Half Bridge ( converter )
ZVT         Zero Voltage Transition ( switching )
ZWS         Zero Wait State

µ           micro ( 10^-6 )
µBGA        Micro Ball Grid Array
µC          MicroComputer
µCBIC       MicroController Cell-Based Integrated Circuit
µCE         MicroCombinatorial Element ( FPGA )
µP          MicroProcessor